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carnaval

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VIEW-8797
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Children on snowpiles, Montreal, QC, about 1890
Wm. Notman & Son
1890-1900, 19th century or 20th century
Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process
20 x 25 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-8797
© McCord Museum

VIEW-1473.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Quebec City from the steamer, QC, about 1885
Wm. Notman & Son
About 1885, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process
17 x 23 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-1473.1
© McCord Museum

II-116373
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Mrs. Rutherford's baby on a horse, Montreal, QC, 1896
Wm. Notman & Son
1896, 19th century
Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process
20 x 25 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-116373
© McCord Museum

II-43350
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Messrs. McNab and Bond, Montreal, QC, 1876
Notman & Sandham
1876, 19th century
Silver salts on glass - Wet collodion process
25 x 20 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-43350
© McCord Museum

II-43351
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Messrs. McNab & Bond, Montreal, QC, 1876
Notman & Sandham
1876, 19th century
Silver salts on glass - Wet collodion process
25 x 20 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-43351
© McCord Museum

MP-1974.133.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Millar and McDougall family members, Drummondville, QC, 1890
Charles Howard Millar
1890, 19th century
Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process
20 x 12 cm
Gift of Mr. Leslie Millar
MP-1974.133.1
© McCord Museum

MP-1974.133.45
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Mrs. C. H. Millar and sister Annie McDougall at "Lord's Farm", Drummondville, QC. about 1895
Charles Howard Millar
About 1895, 19th century
Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process
12 x 20 cm
Gift of Mr. Leslie Millar
MP-1974.133.45
© McCord Museum

MP-0000.1023.6
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Man with dog at Officer's Quarters, Fort Lennox, Ile aux Noix, about 1890
1885-1895, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on card - Albumen process
9.3 x 10 cm
Gift of Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.1023.6
© McCord Museum

II-112980.0
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Copy group for Reverend Canon Henderson, copied 1895
Wm. Notman & Son
1895, 19th century
Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process
12 x 17 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-112980.0
© McCord Museum

MP-1974.133.114
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Millar family at "Lord's Farm", Drummondville, QC, 1889 (?)
Charles Howard Millar
Probably 1889, 19th century
Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process
12 x 20 cm
Gift of Mr. Leslie Millar
MP-1974.133.114
© McCord Museum

MP-1977.76.55
© McCord Museum
Photograph
"Housemaid & Hired Man", on back verandah, shooting lodge, Rice Lake, ON, 1897
Alfred Walter Roper
1897, 19th century
Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process
10 x 12 cm
Gift of Mr. Vennor Roper
MP-1977.76.55
© McCord Museum

MP-0000.32.12
© McCord Museum
Photograph
People with a horse, about 1885
Ferrier
About 1885, 19th century
Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process
12 x 17 cm
MP-0000.32.12
© McCord Museum

MP-1987.2.6
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Kathleen Moore's birthday party, Dorchester House, Montreal, QC, about 1890
Anonyme - Anonymous
About 1890, 19th century
Silver salts on paper - Gelatin silver process
20 x 25 cm
Gift of Mrs. Olive Elwell
MP-1987.2.6
© McCord Museum

II-60917.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Skating Carnival, Montreal, QC, composite, 1881
Notman & Sandham
1881, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process, composite photograph
12 x 17 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-60917.1
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

Where's Waldo? He can be found among the throng of individuals portrayed in this composite photograph, created by cutting out many individual portraits and gluing them to a painted background. This composite records a skating carnival held in Montreal, March 5, 1881. Like most carnivals commemorated with a composite, this one was attended by a dignitary, in this case the Governor General, the Marquis of Lorne.

In the background is the ice grotto, which was lit from the inside by gas jets giving off coloured flames. Newspaper articles indicate that it was not quite as impressive as it appears here. The pillars of ice had melted a fair bit, and plaster of Paris had been added to the roof to look like a covering of snow.

The bright lighting from the overhead electric light and the colourful costumes provided a very stark contrast to regular social gatherings, which made fancy dress balls so memorable to those who participated. "Kaleidoscopic" was a term frequently used in the lengthy newspaper reports of these events.

References
Montreal Herald, 7 March 1881.

What:

This composite photograph by Notman and Sandham documents some of the hundreds of individuals who attended the 1881 skating carnival, photographed individually in the following weeks.

Where:

The carnival was held at the Victoria Rink in Montreal. Many other Canadian towns and cities also had a Victoria Rink, named after the Queen.

When:

In 1881 the lengthy exposure times required for photography made it almost impossible to photograph a big group successfully. Composites were a means of commemorating an event attended by large numbers of people.

Who:

The Marquis of Lorne, Canada's governor general, can be seen in regular sombre winter dress in the lower right-hand portion of the photograph, next to a young woman with a drum.

II-60125.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Miss Allan and friend as "Tennis" and "Winter", Montreal, QC, 1881
Notman & Sandham
1881, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process
14 x 10 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-60125.1
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

In the late 19th century, fancy dress representing a concept like a game or a season was common, especially for women. The costumes were typically based on a fashionable dress style embellished with trims and small objects that alluded to the concept.

May Allan's unusual "Tennis" costume includes a racket and balls on her head, and a net draped around her navy blue skirt. Her older sister, Maud, in a white dress trimmed with snowshoes and a real stuffed snowbird, portrayed "Winter," a very popular character, especially at skating carnivals. The rectangular pieces at her neckline and waistline are meant to be icicles.

Another popular emblematic costume was "Night," a dress of black tulle covered with gold stars worn with a crescent moon on the head. "The Press" was often portrayed in garments entirely covered with newspapers.

References
Ottawa Free Press, 1 February 1881.

What:

Maud Allan, on the right, wore a "dark green petticoat covered with hemlock; white . . . flannel overdress trimmed with swansdown and icicles; tiny snowshoes fastened in the hat and belt and a snowbird perched on the shoulder."

Where:

The skating carnival attended by these two young women took place in Ottawa, at the Royal Rink. The McCord Museum has a few individual portraits of guests.

When:

The young women posed for this photograph in February 1881, immediately following the fancy dress skating carnival at the Royal Rink in Ottawa, under the patronage of the Governor General, Lord Lorne.

Who:

The Misses Allan were the daughters of the Hon G. W. Allan of Toronto, Speaker of the Senate, and thus were part of the very select viceregal party accompanying Lord Lorne.

II-60011.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
A. G. Lord in skating party costume, posed for a composite, Montreal, QC, 1881
Notman & Sandham
1881, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process
17.8 x 12.7 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-60011.1
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

Occasionally men wore comical costumes to skating carnivals, though not usually to balls. Mr. A. G. Lord portrayed "A Harlequin" at the skating carnival held in Montreal March 5, 1881, and was given a prominent place in the composite of that event. The appeal of such characters is easily understood: "The harlequin is a privileged character and plays his tricks and pranks indiscriminately upon the guests," a manual stated.

Another popular type of comical costume was a bottle of champagne or bitters, as can be seen in the lower right corner of the same composite. Giant heads, a string bass and a giant teacup were noted at other skating carnivals. Sometimes a name on a guest list indicates a comical costume. For instance, a Mr. Hopkins attended the carnival as "That Thing on Ice." Most people in such costumes were not photographed.

References
Masquerade and Carnival: Their Customs and Costumes (New York: Butterick, 1892), p. 110.

What:

Mr. Lord's harlequin costume appears to be quite elaborate in its construction and was evidently the result of some effort or expense.

Where:

Mr. Lord can be found in the composite, centred on the ice grotto.

When:

Mr. Lord was photographed following the carnival in 1881.

Who:

Mr. Lord's pose on skates is more dynamic than many others; he struck a similar pose in photographs he had taken in 1867.

II-60156.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Miss Bethune as "An Incroyable," Montreal, QC, 1881
Notman & Sandham
1881, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process
14 x 10 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-60156.1
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

Miss Bethune is also a central figure in the preceding skating carnival composite. She was dressed as "An Incroyable." Many fancy dress fashion plates illustrated this character in a similar pose; a manual published in 1887 described it as "a very favourite costume." The incroyables were highly fashionable French men of the late 1790s. In fancy dress, however, the name was applied to women in a feminized version of a slightly exaggerated military costume from about 1789, the time of the French Revolution.

This is one of several military-style costumes that women frequently chose. Other such characters were called "Daughter of the Regiment," "Vivandière" or "Follow the Drum." Their popularity almost certainly resided in the masculinity of the dress that resembled a uniform. This was the extent of the gender crossover, however; there is no evidence of a woman ever wearing such a costume with trousers.

References
Ardern Holt, Fancy Dresses Described, or What to Wear at Fancy Balls, 5th ed. (London: Debenham and Freebody, 1887), p. 119.

Aileen Ribeiro, Fashion in the French Revolution (London: Batsford, 1988), p. 117.

What:

Miss Bethune as "An Incroyable" struck a typical pose for this character often illustrated in fashion plates. Two portraits were taken; the other was used in the composite.

Where:

Miss Bethune is not actually outdoors on ice, but in the studio posing on a reflective surface in front of a painted backdrop.

When:

In the 19th century, wearing trousers was highly exceptional for women, even at a fancy dress ball or carnival.

Who:

Miss Bethune was evidently a guest of some importance, as she was given a central position in the composite, and newspaper articles mention she was presented to Lord Lorne.

I-43757.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Miss F. Prior, posed for a composite, Montreal, QC, 1870
William Notman (1826-1891)
1870, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process
17.8 x 12.7 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-43757.1
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

Miss Prior posed for a composite photograph of a skating carnival in 1870. Her daring portrayal was entitled "Girl of the Period." In 1868 an article with this title authored by Eliza Lynn Linton lamented the lack of moral qualities in modern English girls. The author expresses her culture's fear of female emancipation and sexual anxieties. Mrs. Lynn Linton found the "girl" unfeminine and railed against her slang, her love of fun and luxury, her bold, determined manner and her mannish or excessively fashionable dress, accompanied by dyed or artificial hair and a painted face. Worst yet, in Victorian parlance, she was "fast" with men.

Four young women at the carnival chose this character and perhaps enjoyed acting a bit "faster" than normally permitted:
"Among those who fully sustained their characters may be mentioned Miss Mathewson as "A Girl of the Period" . . . A gentleman in his nightgown and nightcap with lighted candle in hand, in search apparently for his bedroom, caused considerable fright to the females at first, but their shyness wore off, and the Girl of the Period, true to her character, became quite confidential."

References
Montreal Star, 3 March 1870.

Eliza Lynn Linton, "The Girl of the Period," Saturday Review, 14 March 1868. [on line].
http://digital.lib.umn.edu/cgi-bin/Ebind2html/vic_lintgirl?seq=1 (pages accessed May 8, 2003)

What:

The "Girl of the Period" costumes generally featured a heavy chignon with large braid, a small hat with exaggerated trim (note the stuffed squirrel), a dark-coloured dress with an apron and mannish accessories like an eyeglass and cane.

Where:

Miss Prior appears to be skating, but is in fact posed in an elaborate set-up in the Notman studio.

When:

In 1870 a large skating carnival was held at the Victoria Rink to entertain Prince Arthur who was in Montreal for a royal visit.

Who:

The "Girl of the Period" character came from an article in the Saturday Review that described fashionable, emancipated young women in very negative terms.

MP-0000.210
© McCord Museum
Print
Carnival, Victoria Skating Rink, Montreal, QC, 1870
James Inglis
1870, 19th century
Lithography
66 x 94 cm
MP-0000.210
© McCord Museum

MP-0000.1989
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Carnival, Victoria Skating Rink, Montreal, QC, original paste-up, 1870
James Inglis
1870, 19th century
Silver salts, paint on paper mounted on card - Albumen process
86 x 150 cm
Gift of Mrs. I. Sexton
MP-0000.1989
© McCord Museum

I-45122.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Skating Carnival, Victoria Rink, Montreal, QC, 1870
William Notman (1826-1891)
1870, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process, composite photograph
20 x 25 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-45122.1
© McCord Museum

I-43863.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
H. M. Holland as "Ali Baba," (posed for a composite), Montreal, QC, 1870
William Notman (1826-1891)
1870, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process
17.8 x 12.7 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-43863.1
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

Mr. H. M. Holland has also chosen an exotic fantasy character, "Ali Baba." The photograph suggests that he has not used any authentic Middle Eastern clothing in his costume. The exotic impression is created by the turban and fake beard, worn with a rather poorly made shirt and loose trousers. One fancy dress manual, in reference to a very similar illustration described simply as "Oriental Costume," stated: "This unique costume is exceedingly simple and may be made at home."

It was generally recognized that many exotic portrayals were pure fantasy, but that was no deterrent to their popularity. One reporter observing a fancy dress ball wrote:
Greeks and Malays with daggers and dirks;
Spaniards, Jews, Chinese and Turks;
Some like original foreign works
But most like bad translations.

References
Masquerade and Carnival: Their Customs and Costumes (New York: Butterick, 1892), p. 38.

Toronto Daily Mail, 24 February 1876.

What:

Mr. Holland's "Ali Baba" costume appears to have been quickly assembled from low cost materials. There is more fantasy in the name than in the costume.

Where:

Mr. Holland has not been located in the Notman composite of the skating carnival, although he did attend and have his photograph taken.

When:

In the late 19th century, while such portrayals were popular, they revealed more about Western fascination with the exotic and prejudices concerning the people they intended to represent than they did about the models themselves.

Who:

Ali Baba is the main character in "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves," one of the stories from the Arabian Nights.

II-79287.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Montreal Snowshoe Club on Mount Royal, Montreal, QC, composite, 1884
Wm. Notman & Son
1886, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process
10 x 15 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-79287.1
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

During Montreal's winter carnival, held first in 1883 and in each subsequent year but one until 1889, it was customary for members of the Montreal Snow Shoe Club, bearing torches, to descend from Mount Royal and make an attack on the Ice Palace erected every winter on Dominion Square.

What:

Where:

When:

Who:


I-43752.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Mrs. William Easton as "A Turkish Lady," Montreal, QC, 1870
William Notman (1826-1891)
1870, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process
17.8 x 12.7 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-43752.1
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

Mrs. Easton attended the skating carnival as "A Turkish Lady." Like Mr. Holland's "Ali Baba" costume, hers is pure fabrication. For women, the appeal of such costumes was heavily based on the commonly held belief of the greater sexual permissiveness of the exotic "other." A fancy dress advice manual recommended that the darkly mysterious was a good choice for a woman: "If . . . she has the liquid eye that speaks the flirtatious soul . . . [she] may be quite irresistible: for always the unknown allures."

In such costumes women flouted several conventions of respectable female dress. Here the hair, normally worn up, is left long and loose. This colourful costume was adorned with a great deal of jewellery, which would have seemed ostentatious and in very bad taste in any other situation. A still greater departure from the norms of dress can be seen on close examination of Mrs. Easton's hemline; she is wearing very full "Turkish" trousers, though she has almost hidden them from view.

References
Mrs. Aria, comp., Costume: Fanciful, Historical, and Theatrical (London: Macmillan, 1906), p. 185-86.

What:

Like the bloomers of the mid-19th century, Mrs. Easton's Turkish trousers appear very full and are gathered into two leg bands. They are, however, well hidden by a skirt.

Where:

Only Mrs. Easton's head is visible in the composite, on the right side, towards of the back of the crowd.

When:

While Mrs. Easton's trousers are very daring by the standards of 1870, like other women in fancy dress, she did not go so far as to wear them without modestly covering them with a skirt or to appear without a corset.

Who:

Mrs. Easton was married to Montreal notary William Easton.

II-63426.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Mrs. Chandler and child, Montreal, QC, 1882
Notman & Sandham
January 11, 1882, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process
15 x 10 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-63426.1
© McCord Museum

II-105737.0.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
St. Mary's College hockey team, Montreal, QC, copied 1894
Anonyme - Anonymous
1894, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper
12 x 17 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-105737.0.1
© McCord Museum

Keys to History:

Among Francophones, team sports were less popular. It was rare for colleges and universities to encourage physical activities in general and hockey in particular. Collège Sainte-Marie was an exception to the rule. With the support of the Jesuits who ran the college, an organized hockey team was established in 1884.

What:

Where:

When:

Who:


II-67505.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
J. H. Pillet and child, Montreal, QC, 1882
Wm. Notman & Son
November 24, 1882, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper - Albumen process
15 x 10 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-67505.1
© McCord Museum

© Musée McCord Museum