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Introduction:

Bonjour à vous,
Pendant la deuxième phase d'industrialisation les moyens de transports était en pleine expansion.Alors,nous nous posons la question qui suit"quel moyen de transport était utilisé à cette époque?"Nous allons y répondre avec l'aide des images et des commentaires qui suivent.Selon nous le tramwway, le train, les bateaux,les calèches, les bicyclettes était utilisés à cette époque.


M990.674.1
© McCord Museum
Model of hearse
1865-1875, 19th century
Wood; metal: iron; glass; fibre: velvet; Carved
55 x 27 cm
Purchase from Mr. John L. Russell
M990.674.1
© McCord Museum

Comments:

En 1870 ce modèle de corbillard était en vigueur au Québec.Dans les année 1680 le transport des morts était interdit par une certaine coutume,mais à cause des chemins de terre de la campagne,quelques paroisses ont adoptées les corbillards.

Keys to History:

This scale model of the type of hearse used in Quebec around 1870 belonged to an undertaker who used it to present his various models

In Quebec, a tradition established in 1684 forbade the transportation of the dead in coaches. Out of respect for the deceased, men carried the coffins from the home - where the body had usually lain in state - to the church. Widely observed in the city, this tradition nevertheless caused problems in the country, where the often long roads sometimes had a few steep hills.

To remedy these problems, many parishes acquired, beginning in 1850, hearses that they made available to families. Many trades were involved in making hearses: the vehicle was built by wheelwrights or carriage makers, and sculptors carved the ornamentation.

What:

Hearses made from 1880 to 1900 were decorated with remarkable wooden sculptures depicting angels, crosses and other religious symbols.

Where:

In Quebec, the first hearses were used to alleviate the problems caused by the very long funeral processions in rural areas.

When:

There were very few hearses in Quebec before 1850 because a regulation from 1684 stipulated that coffins had to be carried by hand.

Who:

The coffins were decorated with different colours according to the age of the deceased. Hearses for adults were black, and those for children were white.

II-107596.1
© McCord Museum
Photograph
A. S. McCormack and bicycle, Montreal, QC, 1894
Wm. Notman & Son
1894, 19th century
Silver salts on paper mounted on paper
17 x 12 cm
Purchase from Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-107596.1
© McCord Museum

Comments:

N'ayant plus besoin d'animaux pour la pousser, la bicyclette est le premier moyen de locomotion terrestre. Autrefois, la bicyclette étais vu comme le moyen de transport le plus efficace.À partir de ce moment elle est devenue le véhicule le plus utilisé dans le monde.

Keys to History:

In the 19th century, after their design is improved and they get lighter because of the new metal alloys, bicycles become a very popular mode of transportation.

The evolution of the bicycle is very rapid. The velocipede made of wood by the Scottish blacksmith Kirkpatrick Macmillan (1839) is considered something of a toy. But the metal velocipede fashioned by the French wheelwright Ernest Michaux (1861) is a serious means of locomotion.

Harry J. Lawson, in England, invents a pedal to drive the bicycle's back wheel (1876) and a chain drive and pedals similar to the ones of today (1879). His bicycle has a cross-shaped frame, much like our all-terrain vehicles.

The bicycle, illustrated here, has wheels of the same size, handbars, fork blades and a diamond-shaped frame.

Bicycles provide an incentive to take part in sport, help save on the cost of transporation and encourage communication and exchange with others. Several professions (messengers, letter carriers...) adopt them. In other words, they play an integral role in the social transformation of the era.

Source : Brand New and Wonderful: The Rise of Technology [Web tour], by Jacques G. Ruelland, Université de Montréal (see Links)

What:

This cyclist is proudly showing off his bicycle with its diamond-shaped frame - quite the novelty in 1884.

Where:

The woman's bicycle, which is ridden astride, is patented in England in 1874. The brave cyclists who first use them are breaking ground simply because they are willing to reveal their legs! In the United States, Mrs. Amelia Bloomer designs women's "bloomer" pants, based on an oriental style, to be worn by women when riding a bicycle.

When:

The bicycle tire is invented in 1888 by John Dunlop of Ireland.

Who:

In 1878, an article in Scientific American magazine announces that the bicycle is "a horse that is always saddled and eats nothing and requires no care."

MP-0000.25.982
© McCord Museum
Photograph, glass lantern slide
Locomotive with pullman cars, Canadian Pacific Railway, about 1895
Anonyme - Anonymous
About 1895, 19th century
Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process
8 x 8 cm
Gift of Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.25.982
© McCord Museum

Comments:

Les trains se déplacent sur des rails en fer.Ils étaient un moyen efficace de transporter des marchandises tout au long de l'année.Les trains sont plus rapides que les bateaux car ils ne sont pas limités au voies d'eau. Le Grand tronc a été construit dans les années 1850 et 1860. En 1885, le Canadien Pacifique fût le premier chemin de fer transcontinental.Les chemins de fer ont énormément contribués au dévelloppement économique du Québec.


MP-1986.53.11
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Tram No. 640, Westmount Boulevard, Montreal Tramways Company, QC, 1912
Anonyme - Anonymous
1912, 20th century
Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process
20 x 25 cm
Gift of Mr. Edgar Tissot
MP-1986.53.11
© McCord Museum

Comments:

Avec l'agrandissement de la ville, on met sur pied le transport en commun.Les premiers tramways se manifestent en 1861 à Montréal et à Québec.Ils roulent sur des rails mais ils sont tirés par des chevaux.


MP-1986.53.6
© McCord Museum
Photograph
Tram No. 529, Notre Dame St., Montreal, QC, 1906
Anonyme - Anonymous
1906, 20th century
Silver salts on glass - Gelatin dry plate process
20 x 25 cm
Gift of Mr. Edgar Tissot
MP-1986.53.6
© McCord Museum

Comments:

Inventé en 1892 le tramway est devenu,au 19 siècle,le moyen de transport le plus utilisé par les ouvriers,puisque les tarifs n'augmentent pas.L'électricité du tramway aide à accroître la population des villes et les activités économiques.

Keys to History:

This photograph shows a streetcar travelling along Notre Dame Street with a few passengers on board.

In 1892, only 11% of workers took the tramway every day. By 1901, this percentage had climbed to 41%. Several factors explain this sudden popularity. First, fares did not increase until 1910, which was not the case with the workers' wages, and second, the electrification of the network, completed in 1894, increased the speed and power of the vehicles. These improvements made the tramway more attractive to workers who wanted to live a distance form their place of work.

In fact, the electrification of the tramway contributed to the increasing spread of the urban population and contributed to the concentration of economic activities.

What:

Workers had every interest in using the tramway at the end of the 19th century since they could take advantage of reduce fares during peak periods.

Where:

The Saint-Laurent, Sainte-Marie and Plateau Mont-Royal neighbourhoods became populated with workers and developed after the extension of the streetcar lines.

When:

While the decade 1900-1909 is considered to be the golden age of the tramway in Montreal, this means of transportation started losing ground starting in the following decade in favour of the automobile.

Who:

In the early 20th century, the tramway was part of the daily lives of the majority of Montrealers, whatever their social status, their occupation or their age.

Conclusion:

La création de ce circuit nous a permis de connaître les moyens de transports que les gens utilisaient pour ce déplacer à l'époque. Nous avons pu conclure que les ouvriers utilisaient le tramway ou des cabines de train plus luxueuses que les autres pour les personnes plus fortunées.Donc le moyen de transport peut dépendre de la classe sociale. En espérant que vous avez aimé.

Pour ce projet notre source a été le site du Musée McCord.

Marianne
et
Annie


© Musée McCord Museum