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The Marler Family in Quebec by Eric Marler, M.D.

Eric Marler M.D.

Voir le circuit

Introduction:

Quebec is a living tapestry with many threads. When Europeans first explored Quebec, Native Americans had already learned how to survive harsh winters and hot summers. In fact had not the natives helped support the mariners with cedar tea, they would have perished from scurvy, and we would not have the rich human endowment that stems from France. My own ancestor came with the British army to fight in the War of 1812. After the war, he emigrated to Montreal in the Eastern Townships. His descendants became notaries in Montreal. Eventually they escaped the heat and humidity of Montreal by spending their summers in the Lower St. Lawrence.


M2475
© Musée McCord
Estampe
Vue de la ville de Québec, capitale du Canada, 1760
Hervey Smyth
1760, 18e siècle
42 x 55.2 cm
Don de Mr. David Ross McCord
M2475
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

It was to Quebec City that the Reverend David Francois de Montmollin had come at the behest of King George III in the year 1768. De Montmollin was born in 1721 in Montmollin, a municipality in the district of Val-de-Ruz, in the canton of Neuchâtel, Switzerland. He studied medicine in Basle, Leyden and London and was ordained in the Anglican Church in London in 1768. At the time of his arrival in Quebec City, there were but 200 Protestants in Lower Canada, mostly disbanded soldiers, while there were 80,000 'new subjects' of French descent.

The Reverend de Montmollin spoke French and very little English. The King selected him to serve the Anglican Church in Quebec City, believing that de Montmollin would succeed in converting French Catholics to the Protestant faith. He had a congregation of at most 19 persons and held services in a Franciscan monastery. From 1768-1770, he reported "Burials 80, Baptisms 78. Marriages 29, Proselytes 2." He had 3 sons, of whom Jean Samuel and Jean Frederic migrated to Vergennes, Vermont in 1792.

Sources:

The Dictionary of Canadian Biography contains an excellent account of the life of the Reverend David Francois de Montmollin at

http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=36684&query=Marler



David Francois de Montmollin by George C. Marler at

http://www.montmollin.ch/docs/marler.pdf


M3573.1
© Musée McCord
Estampe
Levé du lac Champlain incluant le lac George, Crown Point et Saint-Jean
William Brassier
1776, 18e siècle
71.4 x 54.7 cm
Don de Mr. David Ross McCord
M3573.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In 1775, there was a limited network of roads. There was a highway on the north side of the St. Lawrence River leading from Quebec City to Montréal via Three Rivers. On the south side of the St. Lawrence River another road led from Levis, opposite Quebec City, to St. Lambert, opposite Montreal. That road passed through Saint-François-du-Lac at the mouth of the St. Francis River. From there, the Saint Francis River flows southward to Vermont, providing a gateway to New York and colonies to the south.

In 1789, David David, a Montreal trader, began importing wheat from Vermont through Quebec merchant Jean Samuel de Montmollin. In 1790, Jean Samuel de Montmollin of Quebec acquired a lien on substantial property in Vergennes, Vermont (vide infra)

Charlotte Marguerite de Montmollin (1794-1842) was the natural child of Jean Samuel de Montmollin (1765-1810) and perhaps a descendant of Chief Greylock. The Chief's name Wawanolewat means "the one who makes a U-turn on the trail". He was of the Pocumtuck Confederacy who joined the Missisquoi or Mazipskuik Abenaki who lived nomadically on the. Eastern shores of Lake Champlain. He walked with a limp allegedly from an accident with a bear trap. He was allied with the French, the Abenaki being at odds with the Iroquois and their ally the English. Charlotte, the widow of the chief, leased lands in Missisquoi to James Robertson in 1765. Robertson's Lease can be found in the Vermont Historical Society Archives.

Charlotte Marguerite de Montmollin was born in the City of Vergennes, Vermont in January 1794. How her father brought her from Vergennes to Quebec City while she was but a very small child can only be a matter of speculation. Transportations between the two places must have been long and arduous.
On July 28, 1796, before Notary Lelievre, he entered into a most unusual contract. He entrusted Charlotte Marguerite, his natural daughter, aged two years, to Joseph Derome dit Decareau, master butcher, and Dame Marguerlte Bro, the latter's wife, until she should reach the age of 21 years or get married. The Decareaus, husband and wife, were to feed, shelter and maintain Marguerite according to her status and to instruct her in the principles of religion, to send her to school (having regard to her religion) when she was able to speak, and take every possible care of her, and to treat her humanely.

To indemnify and to encourage the Decareau as the contract reads, John Samuel described as Samuel de Montmollin, residing in this city of Quebec, made them a "gratuitous present of the sum of Fifteen Spanish dollars, "once and for all".

John Samuel continued southward, having emigrated from Canada to the United States in 1792, settled a few years later in 1796 in Savannah, Georgia, married Maria Edwards, founded a family and engaged in transatlantic shipping. He died on board ship in 1810 and is buried with a tombstone on the Isle de Goree, Senegal.

Sources:

Portrait of John Samuel de Montmollin (1765-1810)can be seen at

http://www.montmollin.ch/montmollin-usa.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_David_(fur_trader)

http://midddigital.middlebury.edu/SharingVTHistory/BooksPamphlets/HAC/chap34HAC

"In 1790 the following return was made by James Atlee, deputy sheriff, on a writ against Jabez G. Fitch, in favor of John, Frederick, and Samuel De Montmellin, merchants in Quebec: "I attached the following property: one dwelling house, the residence of said Jabez, with the lots numbers 13 and 14 (Methodist Church and Franklin House lots), one storehouse on lot number 8 (where the probate office now is), with two other lots adjoining; one dwelling house, the residence of Spinks, bloomer; one frame barn, two sorrel horses, one eight the other nine years old, with one gray horse seven years old, with two yoke of oxen, three brown and one black, two potash kettles with the house thereto belonging with 1000 bushels of ashes; one forge with every implement necessary for carrying on the same in said forge and apparatus thereto belonging, one coal-house, one blacksmith shop, one dwelling house, the residence of Woodbridge, one grist-mill with all the mill work therein complete, five sawmills with the buildings belonging to the same, one fulling-mill, with the falls, dams, flumes and conveyances thereto belonging; likewise all the lots said buildings stand on, the whole situated in Vergennes, the property of the within named Jabez G. Fitch."

http://www.montmollin.ch/docs/marler.pdf

Excerpted and Condensed by the author from: A Short Biography of David Francis de Montmollin by George C. Marler, 1963


VIEW-5683
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Rue de Buade, Québec QC, 1916
Wm. Notman & Son
1916, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
25 x 20 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-5683
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

The Rev. David Francois de Montmollin's house was at no. 10 de Buade Street in Quebec City. The Reverend David Francois de Montmollin died in 1803. His wife, Jane Bell de Montmollin (1728-1822) moved to no. 1 St. Stanislas Street. Charlotte Marguerite de Montmollin (1794-1843) moved in to live with her grandmother. The Anglican Cathedral of the Holy Trinity was completed in 1804. It was there that the British attended church services. It was there that Charlotte Marguerite de Montmollin, age 17, met and married Leonard Marler (1787-1824).

Sources:

http://maps.google.com/maps?rlz=1T4ACGW_enUS369US369&hl=en&biw=911&bih=391&q=10%20rue%20de%20Buade%20Ville%20de%20Quebec%20Canada&gbv=2&gs_sm=s&gs_upl=3343l16533l0l23717l38l38l0l32l0l0l220l910l1.3.2l6&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=vl< br/>< br/>Street View of 10 de Buade Street, Quebec City, Google Maps


M930.50.1.325
© Musée McCord
Gravure
Château Ramezay, Montréal
John Henry Walker (1831-1899)
1850-1885, 19e siècle
Encre sur papier - Gravure sur bois
6.8 x 9.9 cm
Don de Mr. David Ross McCord
M930.50.1.325
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Leonard Marler (1787-1824) served as Assistant Commissar of supply in the British Army. They lived briefly in an apartment on D'Aiguillon Street in Quebec City before moving to the Chateau de Ramezay in 1812. In 1814, after conclusion of the War of 1812, Charlotte Marguerite de Montmollin and Leonard Marler lived in Montreal until 1816.


M987.253.56
© Musée McCord
Impression (photomécanique)
Comtés des Cantons-de-l'Est, Québec
H. Belden Co. (Publisher - éditeur)
1881, 19e siècle
Encre et encre de couleur sur papier - Chromolithographie
63.4 x 40.7 cm
Don de Mr. Colin McMichael
M987.253.56
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Charlotte Marguerite de Montmollin and Leonard Marler settled at Three Rivers in 1816 on the north shore of the St. Lawrence river, moving in 1818 to a farm on the south shore in the Seigneury of St. Antoine de la Baie du Febvre, and in 1821 to Nicolet. They had a son, George Leonard Marler (1813-1884) and 4 daughters, Jane, Charlotte, Mary Ann and Ellen. Jane Bell de Montmollin joined the family at Nicolet, and died at the age of 94 in 1822. Dutifully, Leonard Marler took her body by ship to Quebec City and buried her in a cemetery near the St. Louis Gate next to her husband. Leonard Marler was saddled with significant debt when he died in 1824 at the age of 37.


I-45079
© Musée McCord
Photographie
George Leonard Marler, Montréal, QC, 1870
William Notman (1826-1891)
1870, 19e siècle
Plaque de verre au collodion humide
25 x 20 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-45079
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

George Leonard Marler (1813-1884) worked as an assistant to Notary Luc-Michel Cresse. George Leonard worked as a registrar of deeds and from 1839 as the agent of Major General Heriot (1786-1843), the founder of Drummondville, and in the lumber business.


I-82979
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Mme Mary Ann Marler, Montréal, QC, 1873
William Notman (1826-1891)
1873, 19e siècle
Plaque de verre au collodion humide
25 x 20 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-82979
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In 1843, George Leonard Marler (1813-1884) married Mary Ann Collins Woodward (1809-1900), a co-seigneur of Nicolet. They had 4 boys: Waterford Lake Marler (1844-1914), John Leonard May Marler (1845-1915), William de Montmollin Marler (1849-1929), and George Ross Marler (1851-1940) and a daughter, Lucy Jane Marler (1855-1942).

His son William was educated at the seminary in Nicolet and as a result was fluent in French as well as English. His father judged William as too frail for physical labor. Therefore, he moved the family to Montreal in 1858 to pursue higher education for his children

He is listed as a lumber merchant (p. 712) with a sawmill (p. 756) at Leonard's Hill, Drummond in Mitchell's Classified Directory of Canadian business, 1865-66.


MP-0000.25.219
© Musée McCord
Photographie, diapositive sur verre
Séminaire Saint-Sulpice, rue Notre-Dame, Montréal, QC, vers 1910
Edgar Gariépy
Vers 1910, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
8 x 10 cm
Don de Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.25.219
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

George Leonard Marler made a living initially at the Seigneurial Tenure office and subsequently as chief office administrator for the Gentlemen of St. Sulpice on Notre Dame West. George Leonard Marler died in 1884, having risen from humble beginnings in the Eastern Townships to a pivotal role in Montreal life.


M971.171
© Musée McCord
Dessin
La ferme des prêtres.
Charles Dawson Shanly
1847, 19e siècle
Mine de plomb sur papier
23.5 x 30.2 cm
Don de Miss Mary Shanly
M971.171
© Musée McCord

Description:

Cette aquarelle datée et signée offre une vue nord-ouest prise juste un peu au sud de l'actuelle rue Sherbrooke, des tours et des bâtiments de la mission des sulpiciens située sur le flanc ouest du mont Royal. C'est aujourd'hui le site du Grand Séminaire. Dans son ouvrage intitulé Hochelaga Depicta, Newton Bosworth décrit la ferme de la manière suivante : « La maison des prêtres se trouve sur le flanc de la montagne, légèrement à gauche du chemin menant à la Côte-des-Neiges et à la rue Saint-Laurent. Elle est composée de vastes jardins et vergers et de plusieurs acres de terrain cultivés comme une ferme au profit du Séminaire, auquel elle appartient. Les bâtiments, spacieux et importants, offrent une vue superbe sur la ville, sur le fleuve Saint-Laurent et sur la campagne idyllique juste devant. L'été, ce lieu est parfaitement adapté à l'exercice et aux loisirs d'une profession sédentaire et devient le but de la sortie hebdomadaire des professeurs et élèves du Séminaire et du Collège. Ceux-ci marchent au pas, généralement accompagnés d'un orchestre composé d'amateurs choisis parmi les élèves. Autrefois appelé le Château des Seigneurs de Montréal, ce lieu est maintenant souvent appelé La Maison des Prêtres ». L'ensemble, fondé en 1683, était à l'origine une mission vouée à la conversion des peuples autochtones du Québec. Aujourd'hui, il ne reste des bâtiments originaux que les tours jumelles qui faisaient autrefois partie du mur d'enceinte. Bien que la description de Bosworth ait été publiée avant la réalisation de ce dessin, elle correspond cependant exactement à ce que l'artiste pouvait contempler quelques années plus tard. (Extrait de: Conrad GRAHAM, Mont-Royal - Ville Marie : vues et plans anciens de Montréal, Musée McCord d'histoire canadienne, p. 104.)


N-0000.193.60.2
© Musée McCord
Photographie
« La ferme des prêtres », Collège de Montréal, rue Sherbrooke, Montréal, QC, 1859
William Notman (1826-1891)
Vers 1859, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur carton - Papier albuminé
7.3 x 7 cm
Don de Mr. James Geoffrey Notman
N-0000.193.60.2
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

The Gentlemen had Seigneurial rights over vast tracts of land on the island of Montreal. Under the 1854 Act for the Abolition of Feudal Rights and Duties in Lower Canada George Leonard Marler guided the conversion of tithes to freehold. The lands surrounding the country retreat of the Gentlemen of St. Sulpice were developed as streets with houses on what came to be known colloquially as 'Priests' Farm'.

Clefs de l'histoire:

Sans doute l'ordre religieux le plus important du Bas-Canada, les Sulpiciens ont leur maison mère au séminaire de Montréal. Appuyant les autorités établies comme la couronne britannique, ils tirent leur influence, notamment à Montréal, de leur pouvoir paroissial, seigneurial et pédagogique. Cette vue montre leur domaine sur la rue Sherbrooke, à Montréal, et les bâtiments de leurs écoles, le Collège de Montréal et le Grand Séminaire, où seront formés des générations de prêtres.

Source : circuit web '1837-1838 : Les lendemains' de Brian J. Young, Université McGill (Voir sous l'onglet Liens)

Quoi:

Mission indigène dans un premier temps-les tours de cet ouvrage défensif sont toujours visibles depuis la rue Sherbrooke-la propriété du séminaire sert de maison de campagne et de ferme pour les prêtres jusqu'à la construction d'écoles sur ce site durant les années 1850.

Où:

Situé sur les flancs du mont Royal, le domaine occupe l'un des emplacements les plus prestigieux de Montréal. Des vergers et des champs entourent la propriété, et les étudiants et les prêtres disposent de vastes espaces pour pratiquer sports et loisirs.

Quand:

Avec ses écoles, son église et ses bureaux à proximité, le Séminaire a toujours été situé au coeur de ce qu'on appelle aujourd'hui le Vieux-Montréal. À mesure que la vieille ville devient surpeuplée et insalubre, l'air, l'eau pure et les grands champs de la rue Sherbrooke font de cet emplacement un lieu attrayant pour la construction (1855-1864) d'une école de garçons et d'un séminaire pour la formation des prêtres.

Qui:

Les prêtres formés dans ce séminaire voyagent à la grandeur de l'Amérique du Nord, desservant des paroisses d'est en ouest. Le photographe William Notman espérait peut-être vendre ses photographies de l'école aux prêtres vivant loin de la ville.

M315
© Musée McCord
Peinture
Montréal depuis la montagne.
James Duncan (1806-1881)
Avant 1854, 19e siècle
Aquarelle, mine de plomb et gouache sur papier
45.1 x 63.5 cm
Don de Mr. David Ross McCord
M315
© Musée McCord

Description:

Cette aquarelle exécutée depuis le flan ouest du mont Royal regarde vers l'est en direction de la ville et de l'Île Sainte-Hélène. Elle a en fait été réalisée dans le jardin de Temple Grove, la résidence de la famille McCord. Une calèche avance le long du chemin de la Côte-des-Neiges. À droite, la rangée de peupliers de Lombardie délimite la ferme des prêtres où fut plus tard érigé le Grand Séminaire, À gauche des arbres une rangée de bâtiments blancs borde la rue Sherbrooke. Au cours de la seconde moitié du dix-neuvième siècle, cette artère devint l'une des plus élégantes de Montréal. Les constructions qui s'étendent vers l'ouest sont très représentatives de l'expansion de la ville à cette époque. Cette aquarelle a servi de modèle à une lithographie de Gauci, imprimée par M.& H. Hanhart et publiée par John Armour à Montréal, et par E. Gambart & Co. à Londres, le 1er août 1854. (Extrait de: Conrad GRAHAM, Mont-Royal - Ville Marie : vues et plans anciens de Montréal, Musée McCord d'histoire canadienne, p. 137.)


MP-0000.1452.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Vue depuis le mont Royal, Montréal, QC, vers 1870
Alexander Henderson
Vers 1870, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur carton - Papier albuminé
23.5 x 33.5 cm
Don de Miss E. Dorothy Benson
MP-0000.1452.1
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

Une grande ville

À compter de 1850, Montréal prend l'allure d'une très grande ville. Sa population, qui s'élève à 58 000 habitants en 1852, dépasse les 267 000 âmes en 1901 ; avec la banlieue, ce nombre atteint presque les 325 000. C'est un changement d'échelle appréciable.

Une telle croissance ne se fait pas de façon continue. Après une forte poussée dans les années 1850, suivie d'un ralentissement pendant les deux décennies suivantes, elle fait de nouveaux bonds à l'aube des années 1880, puis à la toute fin du siècle.

Vers 1850, l'immigration est encore forte, alimentée par la puissante vague irlandaise, qui tire toutefois à sa fin. L'exode rural prend la relève pour alimenter la population montréalaise. Dans les dernières décennies du XIXe siècle, des milliers de personnes quittent la campagne, qui a peu à leur offrir, dans l'espoir d'améliorer leur sort. Des anglophones des Cantons de l'Est, de l'Ontario et des provinces Maritimes et surtout beaucoup de francophones du Québec aboutissent à Montréal.

Quoi:

La vue montre l'essentiel de l'espace urbain vers 1870. Au loin, les deux tours de l'église Notre-Dame dominent le paysage. À l'avant-plan, on aperçoit le quartier Saint-Antoine, nouveau lieu de résidence des Montréalais les mieux nantis.

Où:

La photographie est prise depuis le sommet du mont Royal, une colline de 230 mètres de hauteur. Les peintres et les photographes affectionnent cet endroit, d'où ils peuvent capter le paysage montréalais. Le sommet du mont Royal n'est pas encore un parc public (il le deviendra en 1874).

Quand:

Trois ans après la Confédération, le nouveau pays appelé Canada est déjà l'un des plus vastes du monde. Montréal en est la métropole économique.

Qui:

En 1871, Montréal compte 107 225 habitants. Parmi eux, 53 % sont d'origine française, 45 % d'origine britannique et seulement 2 % d'origines autres.

VIEW-2551
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Ballade en tandem dans le parc du mont Royal, Montréal, QC, vers 1890
Wm. Notman & Son
Vers 1890, 19e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-2551
© Musée McCord

Description:

À la fin du XIXe siècle, les riches visiteurs britanniques de passage à Montréal l'hiver ne peuvent manquer d'accompagner leurs hôtes pour une promenade en traîneau sur la montagne. Sans doute les jeunes gens profitent-ils parfois de la force des deux chevaux des tandems pour donner à une ballade romantique un caractère plus sportif. Les fils de famille, et parfois les filles un peu hardies, prennent alors les guides en main.

La conduite est particulièrement sportive sur cette photo car le traîneau est conduit par des membres du Driving club qui empruntent la route en zigzag, très abrupte, montant à partir des rues Peel et Drummond. Partout ailleurs sur la montagne et en ville, les Montréalais profitent de l'hiver pour se délasser différemment selon les classes sociales - ignorant parfois les sports d'équipe ou les loisirs organisés par les clubs.

Source: Deux quotidiens se rencontren (Consulter l'encadré Voir Aussi sur cette page)


M992.22.2
© Musée McCord
Estampe
Plan du parc du Mont-Royal, Montréal, QC
Vers 1880, 19e siècle
Encre sur papier - Photolithographie
38 x 61 cm
Achat de l'Hardwood Heritage
M992.22.2
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

Ce plan du parc du Mont Royal, qui fut attribué à Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1903), a été complété en 1877, un an après l'inauguration du parc. Olmsted fut chargé de l'aménagement du parc du Mont Royal. Auparavant, ce célèbre architecte de paysage américain avait notamment conçu le Central Park de New York. Au Canada, il eut une influence certaine sur l'aménagement de plusieurs grands parcs urbains.

Pour Olmsted, préoccupé par les besoins humains et par l'environnement de la ville, souvent pollué, ce type de parc avait de grandes vertus pour la santé des citadins, qui pouvaient y respirer un peu d'air pur.

Au Mont Royal, Olmsted souhaitait mettre en valeur chacune des zones de la montagne aux caractères naturels différents. Tout en conservant l'aspect authentique du site, il fit en sorte d'atténuer ses imperfections. De plus, s'inspirant de la conception britannique de l'aménagement paysager des parcs, il favorisa les immenses pelouses vertes, les pentes douces et les regroupements d'arbres, d'arbustes ou de fleurs.

Quoi:

En 1872, à l'aube du projet d'aménagement du parc, 16 expropriations furent effectuées autour du site. Sur ce plan, certaines des propriétés qui ne purent être expropriées sont représentées, notamment celles de David Ross McCord, John Molson et Hugh Allan.

Où:

Sur la montagne, le réseau de sentiers imaginé par Olmsted permettait au promeneur de découvrir différents points de vue de la ville.

Quand:

En 1874, pour la première fois au Québec une loi assurait la protection d'un parc, celui du Mont Royal. Un nouvel article avait été ajouté à la chartre de la ville de Montréal.

Qui:

Lorsque les commissaires de la ville sollicitèrent les services d'Olmsted, ce dernier avait déjà créé neuf parcs urbains américains importants, dont celui de New York.

II-79971.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
M. et Mme W. L. Marler, Montréal, QC, 1886
Wm. Notman & Son
1886, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur papier - Papier albuminé
14 x 10.2 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-79971.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Waterford Lake Marler (1844-1914) worked for the Merchant's Bank, owned by the Allan family, and in 1868, he lived at 988 St. Catherine Street.

He married Sarah Knowlton Foster (1847-1890) in 1879.

They are buried at Knowlton Cemetery, Brome County, Quebec.


I-66860.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
George Marler, Montréal, QC, 1871
William Notman (1826-1891)
1871, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur papier - Papier albuminé
17.8 x 12.7 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-66860.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

George Ross Marler (1851-1940) is listed in Lovell's Montreal Directory in 1872 as a merchant for dry goods and hat straw at 146 McGill with a warehouse at 9 Longeuil avenue; in 1885 as a banker and broker at 1721 Notre Dame.
My father took me to meet him at Christmas in 1939. He lived on the 3rd floor of an old house at 42 Tupper Street.

He died in 1940 without issue.


I-62905.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Mlle Marler, Montréal, QC, 1871
William Notman (1826-1891)
1871, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur papier - Papier albuminé
13.7 x 10 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-62905.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Lucy Jane Marler (1855-1942).


I-73631
© Musée McCord
Photographie
J. R. Hutchins et sa nouvelle épouse, Montréal, QC, 1872
William Notman (1826-1891)
1872, 19e siècle
Plaque de verre au collodion humide
17 x 12 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-73631
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Joseph Ross Hutchins (1852-1922) married Lucy Jane Marler (1854-1942) in 1872. Their son was George Ross Hutchins (1888-1950) who became President of the Mount Royal Metal Company. Aunt Lucy invited our family to their house at 1285 Redpath Crescent at Christmas in 1940.


M979.87.440.5
© Musée McCord
Carte
Le système d'aqueduc de Montréal
Eugene Haberer
1879, 19e siècle
Encre sur papier - Photolithographie
40.5 x 58.3 cm
Don de Mr. Charles deVolpi
M979.87.440.5
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

Les porteurs d'eau se font de plus en plus rares à Montréal. Comme on le voit sur cette carte, tous les quartiers sont bien desservis par le réseau d'aqueduc de la ville. Anciennes et nouvelles demeures reçoivent désormais une eau courante que l'on croit saine. Ne la puise-t-on pas dans un fleuve réputé pour être agité de forts courants ? Le seul véritable problème est de se débarrasser des eaux usées. En effet, l'eau qui entre dans les milliers de foyers doit en ressortir inévitablement. Les ingénieurs proposent de construire au plus vite un autre grand système : celui des égouts. C'est dans les années 1860 que sont aménagés les grands égouts collecteurs. Dans chaque rue de Montréal, les propriétaires peuvent demander que leur propriété soit raccordée au réseau d'égouts. Les porteurs d'eau disparaissent peut-être, mais les plombiers, eux, ne manquent pas d'ouvrage...

Quoi:

Extrait d'une carte de l'île de Montréal indiquant le réseau souterrain d'aqueduc acheminant l'eau vers les résidences et les commerces de Montréal.

Où:

L'eau de la ville était puisée dans le fleuve Saint-Laurent. Elle était ensuite acheminée vers les principaux quartiers du centre-ville situés entre les abords du fleuve et le mont Royal.

Quand:

Cette carte a été réalisée en 1879, plusieurs années après la construction de l'aqueduc, qui remonte au milieu du siècle.

Qui:

Cette carte est l'oeuvre d'Eugene Haberer. Elle a été commandée par le Conseil de ville afin de connaître l'emplacement des tuyaux d'adduction d'eau enfouis sous les rues de Montréal.

M19761
© Musée McCord
Carte
Carte de la ville de Montréal et des alentours
Octobre 1890, 19e siècle
Encre sur papier - Lithographie
62.3 x 93.3 cm
Don de la succession de Miss Dorothy Coles
M19761
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

Pour loger toute cette population nouvelle qui afflue en ville, ainsi que les enfants des Montréalais déjà établis, il faut construire un grand nombre de nouveaux logements, ce qui entraîne une expansion du territoire urbanisé. Au début, la ville peut accueillir les nouveaux venus à l'intérieur de ses limites, mais à partir des années 1870, le peuplement déborde vers de nouvelles municipalités de banlieue. À l'est se trouve Hochelaga, au nord, Saint-Jean-Baptiste, au sud-ouest, Saint-Gabriel, Sainte-Cunégonde et Saint-Henri ; d'autres villes viendront s'ajouter par la suite. En 1891, on compte déjà près de 70 000 personnes dans ces nouveaux territoires qui entourent la ville initiale. Montréal commence d'ailleurs à vouloir intégrer ces municipalités qui se greffent sur ses flancs ; entre 1883 et 1893, elle procède à l'annexion de quatre d'entre elles.

Quoi:

La carte indique le tracé des anciennes limites de la Ville de Montréal, établies en 1792. Elle montre aussi le territoire des principales municipalités de la banlieue.

Où:

La flèche indiquant le nord pointe vers la droite. Pourtant, les Montréalais appellent cette partie de la ville l'est. La géographie populaire et courante n'est donc pas conforme aux véritables points cardinaux.

Quand:

Cette carte de 1890 a été dessinée après les premières annexions. D'anciennes municipalités sont devenues des quartiers (ward) : Hochelaga (1883), Saint-Jean-Baptiste (1886) et Saint-Gabriel (1887).

Qui:

C'est l'ingénieur Charles Edward Goad qui a signé cette carte. Son bureau réalise aussi des plans de la ville, très détaillés et en couleurs, qui indiquent chaque terrain et chaque immeuble.

M984.210
© Musée McCord
Estampe
Montréal, 1892
Anonyme - Anonymous
1892, 19e siècle
Encre de couleur sur papier
65.6 x 114.3 cm
Don de M. Luc d'Iberville-Moreau
M984.210
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

LA VILLE, CREUSET DE LA CONSOMMATION

Au Canada, c'est au XIXe siècle, dans les villes, que naissent les modes de consommation et la culture de la consommation que nous connaissons aujourd'hui. En effet à cette époque, et de manière accélérée après 1850, une série de facteurs se conjuguent pour transformer l'organisation du commerce, les pratiques commerciales et les comportements des consommateurs, surtout en milieu urbain. Parmi ces influences, il faut souligner l'amélioration des communications transocéaniques, l'industrialisation, l'intégration économique et spatiale réalisée par la construction ferroviaire, ainsi que l'expansion de la presse à grand tirage et des autres formes d'imprimés.

Il en résulte à la fois une progression remarquable des échanges internationaux et interculturels et une transformation profonde de la société urbaine.

References
Source en ligne



Vue à vol d'oiseau de la ville de Montréal, par George Bishop :
http://www.archives.ca/05/0509/050950/05095021_f.html (pages consultées le 27 février 2003)

Source imprimée



R. H. Schein, « Representing urban America: 19th-century views of landscape, space, and power », Environment & Planning D: Society and Space, vol. 11, 1993, p. 7-21.

Source : circuit web 'La consommation : une passion victorienne' de Joanne Burgess, Université du Québec à Montréal (Voir sous l'onglet Liens)

Quoi:

Cette lithographie présente une vue panoramique de Montréal, la métropole canadienne, vers la fin du XIXe siècle. Il s'agit d'un bel exemple des vues à vol d'oiseau, une nouvelle forme de représentation de la ville.

Où:

L'artiste met au premier plan le port, le canal de Lachine, le pont Victoria et les cheminées des usines. Il insiste tout particulièrement sur le visage portuaire et industriel de la ville.

Quand:

Les vues à vol d'oiseau deviennent extrêmement populaires en Amérique du Nord après 1865. Née aux États-Unis, cette mode s'étend rapidement au Canada.

Qui:

Plusieurs exemplaires de cette lithographie ont survécu. Comme les autres, celle-ci a probablement été publiée par la compagnie George Bishop Engraving & Printing Co. Ltd. de Montréal.

II-107160
© Musée McCord
Photographie
William de M. Marler, Montréal, QC, 1894
Wm. Notman & Son
1894, 19e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
17 x 12 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-107160
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

George Leonard Marler guided his son William de Montmollin Marler (1849-1929) toward a law degree at McGill University.

In 1872 William founded a notarial office at 194 St. James Street.

When he died in 1929, The governors of McGill University expressed their great sense of loss in the death of William de M. Marler, Emeritus Professor of Civil Law and for many years a valued member of the Faculty of Law. Long associated with the University as undergraduate and member of the teaching staff he was an integral part of McGill and a companion of her development and growth. Lucid in judgement, facile in exposition, an able and accurate draftsman of the law, he was a recognised leader in the legal calling, and his sound judgement, his high integrity and his sound sense of justice added lustre to his profession. Rich in knowledge and experience, kind, generous and helpful in his daily duties, he was respected by students and clients for the qualities of simplicity and genuineness which adorned the spirit of his service, and the University he served so long and well will forever cherish the memory of a devoted teacher and a faithful friend."


MP-0000.1762
© Musée McCord
Impression
La vieille High School of Montreal, rue University, Montréal, QC, 1870-1880
Eugene Haberer
1870-1880, 19e siècle
Photolithographie
10 x 22 cm
MP-0000.1762
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

William de M. Marler (1849-1929) attended the High School from 1859 to 1865, graduating at the age of 15 years as head boy (dux). The family lived nearby at 3 University terrace on University avenue (now street) and Burnside (now de Maisonneuve).

Clefs de l'histoire:

Au 19e siècle, les instituteurs et les institutrices ont pour mission d'apprendre à lire, à écrire et à compter aux petits Canadiens. Ils règnent, avec les frères et les soeurs des congrégations religieuses enseignantes, sur l'enseignement primaire. En revanche, les enseignants laïcs sont pratiquement absents du secondaire, réservé aux bien nantis. Au Canada français, les collèges classiques, dirigés par des prêtres, constituent l'unique filière de l'enseignement secondaire. Au Canada anglais, les Grammar Schools sont graduellement transformées en High Schools dans la deuxième moitié du siècle. En 1870, la Commission des écoles protestantes de Montréal prend sous sa direction la Montreal High School for Boys, affiliée à l'université McGill. Cinq ans plus tard, elle établit la High School for Girls. C'est le début de l'enseignement secondaire public à Montréal. Les instituteurs et les institutrices deviendront majoritaires dans cet ordre d'enseignement, qui connaîtra un grand développement au siècle suivant.

Source : circuit web 'Des villes et des métiers en mutation' de Robert Gagnon, Université du Québec à Montréal (Voir sous l'onglet Liens)

Quoi:

Estampe d'Eugene Haberer représentant la Montreal High School for Boys, première école secondaire publique de Montréal.

Où:

La Montreal High School est alors située rue University, à Montréal, en face du campus de l'université McGill.

Quand:

Cet édifice abritait à l'origine la Grammar School, institution anglophone d'enseignement privé qui deviendra la Montreal High School in 1870.

Qui:

En 1870, la Montreal High School passe sous la juridiction de la Commission des écoles protestantes. Elle est également affiliée à l'université McGill.

II-93969
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Josephine Marler, Montréal, QC, 1890
Wm. Notman & Son
1890, 19e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
17 x 12 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-93969
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In 1875, William married Josephine Charlotte Howard (1849-1893).

Their children were Herbert Meredith Marler (1876-1940), Gertrude Evelyn (1881-1962), Hilda Beatrice (1883-1966), William de Montmollin aka 'Bill' (1885-1935) and Robert (1890-1891). Josephine Howard contracted tuberculosis and died in 1893.

William de Montmollin Marler (1885-1935) married Margaret Joanna Bagot aka Aunt Peggy (1896-1981). Their son was Willliam de Montmollin Marler aka Monte (1921-). He served in the Royal Canadian Airforce during World War 2, and married Mary Elizabeth DesBrisay in 1943. They settled in British Columbia, where Monte worked as a senior executive in the pulp and paper industry and continues to this day to serve as an ad hoc member of a government commission addressing Aboriginal rights.


05357
Photograph
Coin Sliver Antique Christening Cup
Mr. and Mrs. Roger W. Hutchins
05/05/06
05357

Commentaires:

The christening cup bears the initials H.M.M. for their first born son, Herbert Meredith Marler (1875-1940).


II-77375
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Herbert, Evelyn et Hilda Marler, Montréal, QC, 1885
Wm. Notman & Son
1885, 19e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
17 x 12 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-77375
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

The children in the picture were Herbert Meredith Marler (1876-1940), Gertrude Evelyn (1881-1962) and Hilda Beatrice (1883-1966).


II-137757
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Mlle Evelyn Marler, Montréal, QC, 1901
Wm. Notman & Son
1901, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
17 x 12 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-137757
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Gertrude Evelyn aka Aunt Evelyn MacDougall (1881-1952) married Adeline Marion Gerald D'Arcy Boulton (1867-1953) in Toronto, Ontario in 1905. Gerald Boulton was the great grandson of Judge D'Arcy Boulton (1759-1834) of Toronto. One of their children was William Oswald D'Arcy aka Bill (1907-1989). Bill Boulton married Helen Hopkins (1915-) in 1941. Helen still visits Metis Beach in summer.

Sources:

The Dictionary of Canadian Biography details the life of Justice D'Arcy Boulton at

http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=36887&query=Boulton


II-164270
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Mme G. MacDougall, Montréal, QC, 1907
Wm. Notman & Son
1907, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
25 x 20 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-164270
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Hilda Beatrice Marler (1883-1966) married Gordon Walters MacDougall (1872-1947) in 1906. Gordon MacDougall was a distinguished corporate lawyer and director of a number of leading Canadian corporations


II-219794
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Les enfants de Mme MacDougall, Montréal, QC, 1917
Wm. Notman & Son
1917, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
25 x 20 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-219794
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Their children were Barbara Helen (1908-1975), Gordon Howard (1912-1995), Elizabeth Evelyn (1913-2005), Josephine Emma (1915-1999), and Diana Marler (1918-).

Barbara Helen MacDougall married (1929) Hon. George Buchanan Foster QC, MLA, DFC (1897-1974). I remember him in the 1930s, a silver haired gentleman. nicknamed 'Bunny', kind and approachable.

Sources:

An official biography of G.B. Foster can be found at

http://www.assnat.qc.ca/fra/membres/notices/e-f/fostgb.htm


II-300234
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Mme G. MacDougall, Montréal, QC, 1931
Wm. Notman & Son
1931, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
17 x 12 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-300234
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

On the great holidays, namely, Christmas, New Year's Day, Easter, and Thanksgiving, leaves were added to the mahogany dining table and the set of 12 Chippendale chairs were arranged around the table with perfect symmetry. Our much esteemed paternal grandmother, Mrs. William Marler nee Harriet Jamieson (1865-1954) and various aunts and cousins were added to the family circle. I adored these occasions, as visitors brought new topics of conversation, especially Aunt Hilda Beatrice MacDougall nee Marler (1883-1966) and Aunt Gertude Evelyn Boulton nee Marler (1881-1952), sisters of Sir Herbert Meredith Marler (1876-1940).


MP-0000.1533
© Musée McCord
Estampe
Modes parisiennes, coupure du « Montréal Daily Star », 1935
Anonyme - Anonymous
1935, 20e siècle
Encre sur papier - Demi-ton
20 x 25 cm
MP-0000.1533
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

Ce reportage photo du Montreal Star fait entrevoir une réalité que l'on oublie facilement : ce n'est pas tout le monde qui éprouve des difficultés financières pendant la Crise. En 1935, une famille au revenu annuel de 3 000 $ vit dans un certain confort. Près d'une famille canadienne sur 200 reçoit plus de 10 000 $ par année, une somme appréciable. Et une famille sur 2 000, majoritairement à Montréal et à Toronto, touche un revenu de 50 000 $ ou plus. Cette richesse permet de s'offrir de nombreux luxes, notamment les dernières nouveautés de la mode parisienne.

Pour les biens-nantis, la vie est belle. L'héritier d'une fortune amassée dans le commerce de détail se rappelle ainsi l'époque de la Crise : « Vous pouviez amener une jeune fille à un souper dansant à l'hôtel pour 10 $ et ce prix comprenait la bouteille et la chambre pour vous et vos amis. Je suis heureux d'avoir grandi à cette époque-là. C'était une belle période pour tout le monde. Les gens apprenaient alors ce que cela voulait dire de travailler. » (cité dans Horn)

Une employée de magasin aurait été heureuse de gagner 10 $ par semaine.

Quoi:

Les prix étaient bas par rapport aux normes actuelles. Une nouvelle Ford coûtait 600 $, une maison pourvue de quatre chambres, 6 000 $. On pouvait embaucher une bonne pour 8 $ par mois, gîte et couvert compris.

Où:

La mode parisienne est l'essence même du chic. Les Canadiens fortunés achètent des modèles originaux tandis que les autres achètent des imitations confectionnées par une main-d'oeuvre mal payée à Montréal et à Toronto.

Quand:

En 1935, lorsque paraît ce reportage photo, la reprise est déjà amorcée, mais le chômage reste élevé, et les conditions de vie des fermiers des Prairies sont toujours aussi mauvaises.

Qui:

Les hauts dirigeants, les professionnels prospères et les riches investisseurs gagnent plus de 10 000 $ par année. En 1932, les salaires des joueurs de hockey sont plafonnés à 7 500 $.

II-282902
© Musée McCord
Photographie
L. Woodward Marler, Montréal, QC, 1928
Wm. Notman & Son
1928, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
21.6 x 16.5 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-282902
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Leonard Woodward Marler (1882-1955) was the son of John Leonard May Marler (1845-1915) and Mary Melita Marler nee Walmsley (1857-1941)

His sister was Winnifred May Marler (1880-1978) and his brother was Waterford Leslie Marler(1891-1996). 2 other brothers died in early childhood.

In 1919, he married Isobelle Hart (1892-1970). Their children are: John Woodward Marler (1922-), Peter de Montmollin Marler (1925-) and Elizabeth Ann Marler (1928-).


M977.44.2.1-2
© Musée McCord
Tailleur
Vers 1900, 19e siècle ou 20e siècle
Don de Miss Winnifred Marler
M977.44.2.1-2
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Winnifred Marler (1880-1978) was the daughter of John Leonard May Marler (1845-1915) and Mary Melita Marler nee Walmsley (1857-1941)

Her brothers were Leonard Woodward (1882-1955), and Waterford Leslie (1891-1996). 2 other brothers died in early childhood.

Clefs de l'histoire:

À la fin du 19e siècle, les tabous concernant le port de vêtements masculins par les femmes tendent à disparaître. Malgré les interdits sociaux, celles-ci s'inspirent volontiers de la mode pour hommes, en reconnaissance de l'attrait de ces vêtements et du pouvoir qu'ils représentent. Toutefois, les influences masculines sont parfois tellement éloignées que leur origine est difficile à retracer. Dans les années 1890, les tailleurs--les ensembles veste et jupe comme celui-ci, modelés sur la version masculine et confectionnés par des tailleurs -- sont très à la mode. Pour les nombreuses femmes faisant pour la première fois leur entrée sur le marché du travail, le tailleur, confortable, pratique et élégant, est un symbole d'indépendance.

Comme les habits d'équitation, le tailleur est généralement en laine et présente des détails visiblement masculins, même s'il est ajusté comme un vêtement féminin. Il se porte avec un chemisier, inspiré de la chemise pour homme, et une cravate en ruban ; l'allusion aux vêtements masculins est on ne peut plus évidente.

Quoi:

Ce costume pour dame, confectionné selon les normes du vêtement masculin, est néanmoins conforme à la silhouette féminine à la mode à la fin du 19e siècle.

Où:

Les tailleurs ne conviennent pas qu'au travail. Les femmes élégantes adoptent le style masculin dans leurs tenues de ville.

Quand:

Mlle Winifred Marler a porté ce costume sur mesure en 1898, l'année où elle a fait ses débuts.

Qui:

Ce costume a été fait par le célèbre atelier de confection Saint-Pierre, de Montréal, « Ladies and Gentlemen's Tailor » (Tailleur pour dames et gentlemen), pour Mlle Winnifred Marler.

VIEW-1904
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Intérieur, Bourse de Montréal, Montréal, QC, 1903
Wm. Notman & Son
1903, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-1904
© Musée McCord

Description:

Le nouvel édifice de la Bourse de Montréal ouvre ses portes en 1903 sur la rue Saint-François-Xavier, la « Wall Street » de Montréal. Conçu par l'architecte responsable de la New York Stock Exchange, cet édifice de prestige s'impose par l'élégance et la sobriété de son style, en rupture avec l'architecture dominante en fin de siècle.

La Bourse de Montréal devient une institution financière d'une importance fondamentale au début du XXe siècle. Fondée vingt-cinq ans plus tôt, elle avait longtemps regroupé un nombre limité de courtiers et enregistré un faible volume de transactions, surtout dans le domaine bancaire. Mais après 1900, sa croissance sera spectaculaire. On assiste alors à un important mouvement de concentration du capital et des entreprises. Ces nouvelles sociétés financent leurs activités par l'émission d'actions et d'obligations qui seront de plus en plus transigées à la Bourse de Montréal. Ce lieu devient donc un puissant symbole du pouvoir économique de Montréal et du contrôle qu'exercent les hommes d'affaires de la métropole sur les cours d'eau, les ressources naturelles, les mines et les usines de tout le pays.

Source: Deux quotidiens se rencontren (Consulter l'encadré Voir Aussi sur cette page)

Clefs de l'histoire:

Le développement spectaculaire de l'industrie canadienne nécessite d'importantes injections de capitaux - des investissements à long terme dans les manufactures, les chemins de fer, les services publics et la mise en valeur des ressources. Une grande partie de ces capitaux provient de l'étranger ; les investisseurs anglais et américains voient le Canada comme un lieu d'investissement stable et avantageux. Cependant, des Canadiens commencent aussi à investir dans leur propre pays, achetant des actions (des titres de propriété dans une entreprise) et des obligations (des titres d'emprunt à long terme et à intérêts fixes) dans les Bourses canadiennes. La Bourse permet aux industriels de mettre en circulation les actions de nouvelles entreprises risquées et aux investisseurs d'échanger entre eux actions et obligations.

La Bourse de Montréal est alors la plus ancienne et la plus importante au Canada. Dès 1832, les Montréalais peuvent échanger des actions dans les cafés. En 1874, la Bourse de Montréal devient une société à charte. La négociation de titres est officialisée et réglementée. En 1904, un édifice à colonnade est construit à proximité du quartier des affaires de la rue Saint-Jacques. En 1914, 182 entreprises sont cotées en Bourse et une moyenne de 10 000 actions sont négociées chaque jour. D'autres Bourses ouvrent leurs portes au pays : à Toronto (institution à charte en 1874), Winnipeg (1903), Vancouver (1907) et Calgary (1914). En 1913, un téléscripteur télégraphique annonce les prix des actions en Bourse d'un océan à l'autre.

Quoi:

Sur le parquet de la Bourse, des postes de négociation permettent aux agents de change de se rassembler et de faire une offre. Le prix d'une action reflète les fluctuations de la demande. En 1920, le prix d'une « place », c'est-à-dire du droit de négocier sur le parquet coûte 36 000 $.

Où:

Bien qu'elle soit au coeur de l'économie industrielle canadienne, la Bourse de Montréal reste en marge des marchés de capitaux mondiaux. En 1910, il se négocie 164,2 millions d'actions à la Bourse de New York alors qu'on en négocie 2,1 millions à Montréal et 0,9 million à Toronto.

Quand:

Le marché canadien des capitaux émerge au moment où les Canadiens bénéficient d'un surplus monétaire par rapport à leurs besoins quotidiens et cherchent à assurer leur avenir par le biais d'investissements sûrs. Jusqu'aux années 1930, les marchés de capitaux demeurent peu réglementés ; la fraude et les délits d'initiés sont fréquents.

Qui:

En 1920, la Bourse de Montréal compte 85 membres qui sont souvent affiliés à des sociétés de placement de New York ou de Londres.

Des financiers montréalais ambitieux comme James Dunn (1874-1956) et Max Aitken (1879-1964) poursuivront des carrières florissantes à Londres, alors la capitale financière du monde.

II-340156
© Musée McCord
Photographie
W. Leslie Marler, Montréal, QC, 1947
Wm. Notman & Son
1947, 20e siècle
Gélatine argentique
17.8 x 12.7 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-340156
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Waterford Leslie Marler (1891-1996) was the son of John Leonard May Marler (1845-1915) and Mary Melita Marler nee Walmsley (1857-1941)

His sister was Winnifred May Marler (1880-1978) and his brother was Leonard Woodward Marler (1882-1955). 2 other brothers died in early childhood.

In 1924, he married Audrey Hampson (1901-1969), daughter of Harold Hampson. Their children are: Mary Gwendolen Marler (1928- ). Audrey Louise (1928- ) and Susan (1934- ).

They lived in a house on Cotes des Neiges diagonally opposite the Montreal General Hospital.

Leslie was a stockbroker. He walked to work until the age of 92. He was also an inspiration for his clarity of mind, his wit and charm.


II-350590
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Famille de quatre générations de Mme Leslie Marler, Montréal, QC, 1952
Wm. Notman & Son
1952, 20e siècle
Gélatine argentique
20.3 x 25.4 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-350590
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Audrey Marler nee Hampson (1901-1969), her mother Caroline Hampson nee Tait (1871-1958), wife of Harold Hampson, her daughter Mary Gwendolen Harris nee Marler (1928 - ) and Gwen's daughter, Julia Mary Harris (1952 - ) comprise the 4 generations.


05203
Photograph
Sir Herbert Meredith Marler (1876-1940)
1909
05203

Commentaires:

Sir Herbert Meredith Marler, PC, KCMG (1876-1940) was a Canadian notary and diplomat. Born in Montreal, Quebec, he earned a law degree from McGill University and entered his father's notarial firm Marler & Marler.

Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King appointed him Canada's first Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Canada to the Empire of Japan in 1929. He was knighted in 1935 and returned from Japan in 1936 to serve as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Canada to the United States of America. He served in that capacity until 1939.

Sources:

See a short biography of Herbert Meredith Marler at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Meredith_Marler


II-173150
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Mme Herbert Marler et ses enfants, Montréal, QC, 1909
Wm. Notman & Son
1909, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
17 x 12 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-173150
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

En 1902, Herbert Meredith Marler (1876-1940) married Beatrice Isabel Allan (1880-1968). Aunt Bea was the granddaughter of Andrew Allan. Their children were George Leonard Marler (1903-1959), Adelaïde Edythe Marler (1907-2004), and Howard Meredith Marler (1908-1993). Adelaïde Edythe Marler married Cecil Jackson North (1901-1981) in 1928. North studied business at Harvard and later served for 3 years as the Président of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. They retired to live at Jupiter in Florida. Howard Meredith Marler married Mary Cussons (1910-1994) in 1929. Their children were Allan Michael Marler (1940-1967), David Francis Herbert Marler (1944 -), Brian Bailey Marler (1946 -) and Jonathan Howard Marler (1949 -).


II-333015
© Musée McCord
Photographie
La famille d'Andrew Allan dans le salon, Montréal, QC, photographie composite, 1871
William Notman (1826-1891)
1871, 19e siècle
Gélatine argentique
20 x 25 cm
II-333015
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

Andrew Allan pose ici avec sa femme, née Isabella Smith, ses trios filles, ses cinq fils, ses deux petits-enfants et ses deux gendres. Andrew et son frère Hugh, fondateurs de la Montreal Ocean Steamship Company, jouèrent un rôle très actif dans le secteur des expéditions maritimes à partir des années 1830. La photographie a pour toile de fond une photographie (très retouchée) de la maison d'Andrew Allan, Ioneteh, qui se trouvait rue Peel.

Quoi:

Où:

Quand:

Qui:


II-116749
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Déchargement du vapeur « Durham City », Montréal, QC, 1896
Wm. Notman & Son
1896, 19e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-116749
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

Le principal avantage de Montréal est sa position stratégique au coeur des systèmes de transport. Son port est le plus achalandé du Canada : chaque été, on y observe une véritable forêt de mâts de navires. La Commission du port améliore les installations et, sous l'impulsion de son président, John Young (1811-1878), elle fait creuser, à partir de 1850, un chenal dans le fleuve entre Québec et Montréal. De plus gros océaniques peuvent ainsi se rendre jusqu'à la métropole. Les frères Hugh et Andrew Allan mettent sur pied l'une des lignes transatlantiques les plus importantes de l'histoire du Canada et sont fort actifs dans de nombreuses autres entreprises montréalaises.

Quoi:

Les marchandises apportées par le cargo Durham City sont déchargées sur les quais du port de Montréal et attendent d'être expédiées vers leur destination ultime.

Où:

Les quais du port offrent un lien facile avec les chemins de fer, comme le montrent les wagons, à gauche. L'espace est cependant fort encombré, et des travaux d'agrandissement sont nécessaires.

Quand:

En 1896, la Commission du havre amorce d'importants travaux de modernisation du port de Montréal. Ceux-ci comprennent notamment la construction de nouveaux quais surélevés ainsi que l'érection de hangars à marchandises et d'élévateurs à grain.

Qui:

Les débardeurs, qui chargent et déchargent les navires, forment le gros de la main-d'oeuvre du port. Leur travail est exigeant physiquement. Au plus fort de la saison, ils doivent travailler de très longues heures, mais en hiver, alors que la navigation est interrompue, ils sont en chômage pendant cinq mois.

II-182360
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Résidence de M. Marler, « Grantham Hall », Drummondville, QC, 1910
Wm. Notman & Son
1910, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-182360
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

According to Howard Meredith Marler (1908-1993) in his book « Marler, Four Generations of a Quebec Family" on April 27, 1907 an advertisement appeared in the Montreal Star

FOR SALE, Country Properties, GRANTHAM HALL,

A stately colonial house, consisting of a historic old stone manor and a fine country estate of 80 acres, overlooking the St. Francis River at Drummondville

Herbert Meredith Marler purchased the property in May 1907 for $7,250 and it became henceforth a family seat. The manor house, originally named "Comfort Cottage", had been built by Major General Heriot under a Crown Grant made in 1815. George Leonard Marler (1813-1884) had served General Heriot as property administrator from 1839 until after the General's death in 1843.

My father George C. Marler (1901-1981) spoke of having visited Grantham Hall in his teens. He recalled stables with a horse and carriage, a horse drawn water storage tank for use in case of fire, and a stone barn in which a flock of chickens froze to death in the harsh winter. The house was destroyed by fire in 1922.


MP-1978.107.216
© Musée McCord
Photographie
William Lyon Mackenzie King et un ami sur un quai de gare, Montréal, QC, vers 1930
Anonyme - Anonymous
Vers 1930, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
12 x 17 cm
Achat de Napoleon Antiques
MP-1978.107.216
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Diary of Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King

July 9, 1921 - Visit to Grantham Hall

We made many calls, then at noon, we motored over to Drummondville to Marler's beautiful country house for lunch. Mrs. Cook and her husband were the other guests. After lunch, I rested awhile, after dinner we all talked on the verandah awhile, then went early to bed. A very beautiful place which Marler acquired for a nominal sum. . . ..

Sources:

Diary of Prime Minister of Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King July 9, 1921 - Handwritten: Visit to Grantham Hall. 1 of 155 Excerpts related to Marler

Credit: National Archives of Canada

http://www.collectionscanada.ca.html

Clefs de l'histoire:

Au début de 1930, le premier ministre en poste est le très honorable William Lyon Mackenzie King (1874-1950). Ce célibataire bien nanti dirige le Parti libéral fédéral depuis 1919 et, sauf pour quelques mois en 1926, il est à la tête du Canada depuis 1921.

Lent à réagir devant la dégradation de l'économie, King voit le chômage croissant comme un phénomène saisonnier. En avril 1930, il déclare qu'il ne donnerait pas une pièce de cinq cents à une province au gouvernement conservateur pour résoudre le problème du chômage.

À l'élection fédérale du 28 juillet 1930, les libéraux se présentent comme les gardiens prudents du Trésor public fédéral. Bon nombre d'électeurs, consternés par le flagrant marasme économique et par l'insensibilité dont font preuve les libéraux face à cette situation, tournent le dos au gouvernement. Les libéraux perdent 37 des 128 sièges qu'ils avaient remportés en 1926 (sur 245) et les conservateurs prennent le pouvoir.

Quoi:

Le premier ministre W.L. Mackenzie King considère les demandes d'argent des provinces pour remédier au chômage comme des raids sur le Trésor fédéral. Selon lui, les provinces ne veulent tout simplement pas dépenser leurs propres fonds.

Où:

Le chemin de fer reste le principal mode de transport durant les années de la Crise. Le transport aérien de passagers en est encore à ses tout débuts et plusieurs tronçons des autoroutes ne sont pas encore asphaltés.

Quand:

Cette photographie a probablement été prise en juin ou en juillet 1930, durant la campagne électorale fédérale. Le Parti libéral a peut-être nolisé ce train pour son chef.

Qui:

L'identité de l'homme qui accompagne le premier ministre n'est pas indiquée, mais il est très probable qu'il s'agissait d'un politicien libéral qui désirait vivement se faire photographier avec le chef du parti.

05130
Photograph
Sir Herbert & Lady Marler
1934
05130

Commentaires:

Sir Herbert Meredith Marler (1876-1940) served as Canadian Ambassador to Japan, from 1930 to 1936. He purchased 5 acres on Aoyama Dori in Central Tokyo, near the Aoyama detached Palace. He had negotiated the acquisition with the Viscount (shishaku) Aoyama. They let it be known that the property was occupied by ghosts and spirits, so as to discourage commercial development. The property was next door to land owned and occupied by Prime Minister Takahashi Korekiyo (1854-1936). The Prime Minister had often served his nation as Finance Minister, from his first position as Privy Councilor in London in 1903. Prime Minister Takahashi Korekiyo was assassinated by the Japanese Military in 1936, prior to the Japanese invasion of Nanking. Sir Herbert communicated to his half-brother, my father, George C. Marler, his trepidation over the Japanese Military.


05397
Photograph
Royal Visit to White House
FDR Presidential Archives
June 8, 1939
05397

Commentaires:

Comments
Their Britannic Majesties arrived in Canada in May 1939 embarking on a 26 day tour. On the 2nd day of their tour, the Royal Train arrived in Montreal and on parade they were driven past the intersection of Redpath Street and Sherbrooke Street in a blue 1936 Ford Convertible. I was a boy of 6, and found myself sitting on the knee of Dominic Two-Axe, Chief of the Caughnawaga Mohawks in full feathers.

The King and Queen visited the United States, June 7-12, 1939. According to protocol, when the King and Queen arrive at Union Station in Washington on June 8, 1939: "The British ambassador will then present to the King and Queen Lady Lindsay and the members of the Embassy staff. Mr. Mackenzie King will present the Minister of Canada and Lady Marler. Sir Herbert Marler will present his staff. . . . . The President and Mrs. Roosevelt will escort the King and Queen to the guard of honor, drawn up in front of the station. Military honors will be rendered including the British and American National Anthems, and a salute of twenty-one guns. Photographs will be made following the honors."

"Crowds lined the streets for a chance to glimpse the King and Queen as they traveled throughout the city. In Washington, the couple was treated to all the formalities one would expect from a State Visit. There was an afternoon reception at the British Embassy, followed by a formal evening of dining and musical entertainment at the White House."

Sources:

President Franklin Delano Rossevelt Memorial Library and Museum Archives at Marist College, N.Y. Quotation marks denote verbatim excerpts.


05131
Photograph
David Marler Q.C.
2005
05131

Commentaires:

Howard Meredith Marler married Mary Cussons (1910-1994) in 1929. Their children were Allan Michael Marler (1940-1967), David Francis Herbert Marler (1944 -), Brian Bailey Marler (1946 -) and Jonathan Howard Marler (1949 -).

David F.H. Marler was born in Montreal on October 3, 1941

He was educated at Stouts Hill and Dursley Preparatory School, Gloucestershire, (1955) and at Malvern College, Worcestershire, (1959) in the United Kingdom and at Bishop's University in Lennoxville, B.A. (1962), and at McGill University, B.C.L. (1965). He is fluent in English and French.

He is the Senior and Managing Partner at Marler and Law Associates.

In 1965, David Francis Herbert Marler married Jeanne McAlpine.

Their Children are Stephanie Anne and Michael Allan.

In 1973:, he was appointed by the Minister of Transport to advise, recommend and draft regulations to govern the Laurentian Pilotage Authority (the Authority controlling the navigable waters of the St. Lawrence River below the St. Lambert Lock) these being the regulations which still govern the sector in question.

In 1975, he was appointed by the Minister of Transport to inquire into the circumstances of the collision between the American flag motor-vessel Steelton and Bridge 12 on the Welland Canal, which collision caused the destruction of the bridge and the closure of the Canal.

He is responsible for a trilogy of landmark maritime legal decisions as the lawyer who pleaded successfully before the Supreme Court of Canada the three cases - the "Buenos Aires Maru", 1986, "Chartwell", 1989, "Monk" decisions that define the constitutional and legal parameters of Canadian maritime law. the degree to which that law is federal or provincial, the jurisdiction of the Federal Court of Canada in maritime matters, and the validity of non-responsibility and restrictive liability clauses in contracts pertaining to the carriage of goods by sea.

David Marler has served on a number of the Commissions of Inquiry into marine matters upon the appointment of the Canadian Minister of Transport.
He has published a variety of articles in maritime industry journals and has served as a guest lecturer in maritime law to the Faculty of Law, McGill University, to the Toronto Marine Loss Group of the Canadian Board of Marine Underwriters, to the Canadian International Freight Forwarders Association and to the Insurance Institute of Canada. David Marler is a course lecturer at Concordia University (Montreal) in International Trade Law.

He is a member of the Bars of Montreal and Quebec, the Canadian Maritime Law Association, and a past president of the Association of Average Adjusters of Canada.


I-14170.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
R. C. Jamieson, Montréal, QC, 1865
William Notman (1826-1891)
1865, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur papier - Papier albuminé
8.5 x 5.6 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-14170.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Robert C. Jamieson was born in Scotland in 1836. He emigrated to Montreal where he established R. C. Jamieson & Co., a manufacturer of varnish and japans. In 1865 he lived at Rosemount Cottage in Cote St. Antoine. Cote St. Antoine was renamed Westmount in 1895. Subsequently, he lived at 185 University Street.


I-14171.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Mme R. C. Jamieson, Montréal, QC, 1865
William Notman (1826-1891)
1865, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur papier - Papier albuminé
8.5 x 5.6 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-14171.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Mrs. R. C. Jamieson aka Harriet was born in the United States in 1845. Their children were Hattie aka Harriet Amelia (1864-1954), Nellie aka Helen born in 1866, William in 1867, Walter in 1869, Harry in 1871 and Frederick in 1873.

When they lived on University Street, Hattie, my paternal grandmother, recounted offering autumn apples from the tree in the backyard to medical students from McGill College. Her sister Nellie married in 1886 and became Nellie Cochrane. In the 1940s, Nellie was widowed and moved in to live with her brother Harry at the Sherbrooke Apartments. Harry died accidentally in 1946.


II-141810
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Mme Marler, Montréal, QC, 1902
Wm. Notman & Son
1902, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
17 x 12 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-141810
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In 1898, William de M. Marler (1848-1929) married secondly Harriett Amelia Jamieson (1864-1954). He purchased a house at 288 Peel Street on the West side a few lots above Sherbrooke Street, a house that I remember well. George Carlyle Marler (1901-1981) was their first born son and John de Montmollin Marler (1908-1986) their second son.

During World War I, Mrs. W. Marler served on the Executive Committee of the Montreal Chapter of the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire along with Mrs. H. B. Walker nee Annabella Fraser, the mother of her son, George C. Marler's, future wife, Phyllis Constance Walker.


II-123159
© Musée McCord
Photographie
M. et Mme Marler costumés pour le bal du Château Ramezay, Montréal, QC, 1898
Wm. Notman & Son
1898, 19e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
17 x 12 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-123159
© Musée McCord

II-122875
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Herbert Molson et sa soeur Naomi Molson costumés en « Vikings » pour le bal au Château Ramezay, Montréal, QC, 1898
Wm. Notman & Son
1898, 19e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
25 x 20 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-122875
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

Le Bal historique costumé a pour but de faire naître « chez les citoyens de Montréal un intérêt personnel pour un élément remarquable de leur patrimoine, le Château Ramezay, et le désir de revivre le temps d'une soirée les traditions du château... ». Tous ceux qui assistent au Bal historique costumé doivent y incarner un personnage de l'histoire canadienne. Les invités sont divisés en sept tableaux représentant une période de l'histoire, chaque groupe devant exécuter une danse propre à sa période. Comme au bal donné par Lady Aberdeen, l'activité cherche à transcender le simple divertissement et se veut éducative tant pour les participants que pour ceux qui en liront le compte rendu dans les journaux.

Si la plupart des personnages choisis sont des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, quelques exceptions retiennent l'attention. Un groupe de huit « Vikings » donne le coup d'envoi à la reconstitution du passé du Canada. Herbert et Naomi Molson personnifient « Thyrker » et « Freydis ». Le dernier groupe est celui des gouverneurs anglais depuis la conquête britannique.

References
Cynthia Cooper, Magnificent Entertainments: Fancy Dress Balls of Canada's Governors General, 1876-1898, Fredericton, N.-B., Goose Lane Editions & Canadian Museum of Civilization, 1997, p. 137.

Quoi:

Le costume d'Herbert Molson avait été porté deux ans auparavant par un membre d'un groupe semblable de Vikings lors du bal historique de Lady Aberdeen à Ottawa.

Où:

Ce costume avait déjà été porté lors du Bal historique costumé donné par Lady Aberdeen dans la salle du Sénat à Ottawa.

Quand:

En 1898, Herbert Molson est âgé de 23 ans.

Qui:

Ce couple formé du frère et de sa soeur vient d'une des plus vieilles et des plus riches familles montréalaises. Herbert prendra la succession de la Brasserie Molson à la mort de son père.

II-245309
© Musée McCord
Photographie
George C. Marler, Montréal, QC, 1921
Wm. Notman & Son
1921, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
17.8 x 12.7 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-245309
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

George C. Marler (1901-1981) was born in Montreal, the son of William de Montmollin Marler, notary, and Harriet Amelia Jamieson.

He studied at Selwyn House School in Montreal, Bishops College in Lennoxville, the Royal Naval College of Canada at Esquimault and McGill University in Montreal.

He was admitted to practice as a notary in 1923 in partnership with his father William de M. Marler and his half-brother, Herbert Meredith Marler.

In May 1928, he married Phyllis Constance Walker, daughter of Herbert Barber Walker, banker, and Annabella Fraser.

Their children are Anna Evelyn Aspinall nee Marler, Harriet June Vince nee Marler, George Eric Marler, and Phyllis Claire Marler.

He was an active father taking his wife and children skiing on Sundays at Mount Royal.

From 1942 to 1945 he was a Vice-President of the Executive Committee of the City of Montreal.

In 1942, he was elected as a Liberal member of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Quebec for Westmount-Saint-George.

In 1954, he was named a member of the Privy Council and Federal Minister of Transport in the St. Laurent Cabinet and was subsequently elected as a Liberal member of the House of Commons for Saint-Antoine-Westmount'.

In 1960, he was appointed Minister without Portfolio in the Lesage Cabinet and Leader of the Legislative Council until 1968.

He was a member of the Board of Directors of a number of Canadian Corporations.

He was editor and co-author of a book - The Law of Real Property. He also published 2 philatelic books: The Edward VII Series of Canada and Canadian Stamps of the 1911-1923 Period.

He was interested in lilies and was a friend of Brother Marie Victorin a.k.a Conrad Kirouac. In the late 1930s, he took an active role in the municipalization of the budget of the Montreal Botanic Garden.

He was a keen golfer and played at near par on the links of the Royal Montreal Golf Club at Dixie and the Cascade Golf and Tennis Club at Metis Beach.

He also enjoyed fly fishing for trout in the lakes and streams accessible from the concession roads south of Metis Beach.

He spoke English and French with equal fluency.

He was also interested in family history, writing unpublished manuscripts about the Reverend David Francois de Montmollin and about his grandfather, George Leonard Marler.

Sources:

An official biography can be found at

http://www.assnat.qc.ca/fra/Membres/notices/m-n/MARLER.htm


VIEW-7602
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Dortoir, Royal Naval College, Halifax, N.-É., 1911
Halifax Notman Studio
1911, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-7602
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

George C. Marler (1901-1981) attended the Royal Naval College of Canada at Halifax. It was moved to the Royal Military College at Kingston after the Halifax Explosion of December 6, 1917 and in 1918 to the dockyard at Esquimault, British Colombia. In a letter to his father William de M. Marler (1849-1929) from Esquimault, my father tells of the physical hardship of rowing large naval rowboats. During World War II, he taught navigation to naval officers in Montreal.


II-351089
© Musée McCord
Photographie
John de M. Marler, Montréal, QC, 1952
Wm. Notman & Son
1952, 20e siècle
Gélatine argentique
17.8 x 12.7 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-351089
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

John de M. Marler (1908-1986) attended Selwyn House School and Bishop's College School and graduated with a law degree from McGill University.

Lt. Col. John de Montmollin Marler (1908-1986) served in the Royal Canadian Artillery in the European theatre during the 2nd World War..

In 1945, he married Diana Laing (1921-1991). Their children are Carolyn Anne (1946-), Diana Elizabeth (Lisa) (1950-), and David de Montmollin (1953-). They lived on Clarke Avenue, Westmount, Quebec.

He was a lawyer and a senior partner of Ogilvy, Cope, Porteous, Hansard, Marler, Barristers and Solicitors, Montreal.

He was also a member of the Royal Montreal Golf Club where he maintained a low handicap..

He was also a gifted pianist and was wont to play popular music and lead the family and guests in song.


05463
Photograph
Mrs. John de M. Marler nee Diana Laing with Carolyn Anne (1946 - ), Diana Elizabeth a.k.a. Lisa (1950 - ) and David de M. (1953 -)
1956
05463

I-84748.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Église St. George, rue Peel, Montréal, QC, 1873
William Notman (1826-1891)
1873, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur papier - Papier albuminé
10 x 8 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
I-84748.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

St. George's Anglican Church is located at the corner of La Gauchetière West and Stanley Streets. It was designed in the Gothic Revival style by architect William Tiffin Thomas and completed in 1870. The church has a sculptured wooden altar donated by the Molson family in 1930.

My grandfather Herbert B. Walker (1859-1943) maintained a pew toward the front of the church on the right hand side.

It was at St. George's that my mother Phyllis Marler nee Walker (1899-1986) and my father George C. Marler (1901-1981) married on May 30, 1928. We children, Anna Evelyn, Harriet June and George Eric attended church services regularly on Sunday morning at 11 AM.

Colonel the Venerable Archdeacon Gower-Rees M.A., D.C.L., M.C., graduated as a Master of Arts from Christ's College, Cambridge in 1908. In World War I, he served in the field and was awarded the Military Cross. In 1927 he came to Canada as Rector of St. George's Anglican Church and Archdeacon of Montreal. He was a fine figure of a man with a radiant conviction that the Commonwealth united people of different nations across the world.

It was at St. George's that my sister Eve first met and married Phillip Aspinall, a distinguished C.P.A. and later President of the Royal Victoria Hospital. And it was in the same year of 1958 that my youngest sister Phyllis Claire was born and christened by the Archdeacon.


MP-0000.158.14
© Musée McCord
Photographie, diapositive sur verre
Château Frontenac, Québec, QC, vers 1923
Anonyme - Anonymous
Vers 1923, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
8 x 10 cm
Don de Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.158.14
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In March 1942, my father was elected to the Legislative Assembly for the riding of Westmount-St. George. He was fluent in the French language and familiar with legislative issues. He was in the habit of leaving Montreal on Monday mornings, catching the train to Quebec City and staying until Friday at the Chateau Frontenac in a room overlooking the Old Town. This habit of staying at the Chateau endured until the closing of the Legislative Council in 1968.

Description:

"Québec- Le Château Frontenac : Le Château Frontenac, un hôtel somptueux dirigé par le Canadien Pacifique, est l'hôtel le plus magnifiquement situé dans le monde entier. Son architecture est inspirée de celle des châteaux français du dix-septième siècle, mais sa structure est entièrement moderne, en parfaite harmonie avec l'atmosphère médiévale de Québec. Devant le Château se trouve la terrasse Dufferin, une célèbre promenade d'un quart de mille portant le nom d'un ancien gouverneur général du Canada. Construite tout au bord d'une falaise d'une hauteur de 250 pieds, elle offre une vue imprenable sur le Saint-Laurent qui à cet endroit, a presque un mille de largeur."

Extrait de "ACROSS CANADA BY C. P. R.", Section 2--The Province of Quebec; livret, McGill University Illustrated Lectures, 1928.


07294
Photograph
Hon. Maurice Duplessis
1952
07294

Commentaires:

In 1942, my father went to work as a Member of the Legislative Assembly under the leadership of the Hon. Adelard Godbout (1892-1956), prime minister of Quebec from 1939 to 1944. He also came to know and respect the Hon. Maurice Duplessis (1890-1959), prime minister of Quebec from 1936 to 1939 and 1944 to 1959. In 1948, my father introduced me to Mr. Duplessis following a visit to a session of the legislature. He was charming and recounted his admiration of my father as leader of the opposition.

Sources:

A list of Quebec premiers can be found at

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Quebec_premiers


MP-0000.158.31
© Musée McCord
Photographie, diapositive sur verre
Édifices du Parlement, Ottawa, Ont., vers 1923
Anonyme - Anonymous
Vers 1923, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
8 x 10 cm
Don de Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.158.31
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In 1954, my father was named a member of the Privy Council and Federal Minister of Transport in the St. Laurent Cabinet (1948-1957) and was subsequently elected as a Liberal member of the House of Commons for Saint-Antoine-Westmount'.

Sources:

A list of Prime Ministers of Canada can be found at

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Prime_Ministers_of_Canada

Description:

"Ottawa : La pittoresque capitale fédérale du Dominion du Canada est située au confluent des rivières Rideau et des Outaouais. Ottawa (population 120 000) est la résidence du gouverneur général du Canada, le lieu de rassemblement des membres de la Chambre des Communes et du Sénat, et le siège social des services administratifs du gouvernement. La ville repose sur un terrain élevé et on y trouve plusieurs bâtiments imposants et de belles résidences. Les édifices du Parlement ont été reconstruits après l'incendie dévastateur qui a détruit la plupart d'entre eux en février 1916. Le bâtiment principal, que l'on voit ici, est entièrement nouveau. De vastes districts d'exploitation forestière, comme la vallée de la Gatineau, sont tributaires d'Ottawa, et les chutes de la Chaudière fournissent l'énergie hydraulique à plusieurs industries, dont de nombreuses scieries."

Extrait de "ACROSS CANADA BY C. P. R.", Section 3--The Province of Ontario; livret, McGill University Illustrated Lectures, 1928.


05443
Photograph
Family House at Rockliffe, Ottawa, Ontario
1954
05443

Commentaires:

In July 1954. my father purchased a house in Rockliffe, Ottawa, overlooking a lake.


05447
Photograph
Hon. George C. Marler, Rockliffe, Ottawa
1954
05447

Commentaires:

During 3 years as Minister of Transport, he generated 37 meters of correspondence and documentation, now in the National Archives of Canada. He loved the surcease of the lake at the foot of the property in Rockliffe.


MP-0000.1163.11
© Musée McCord
Impression (photomécanique)
Salle du conseil législatif, édifice du Parlement, Québec, QC, vers 1910
1905-1914, 20e siècle
Encre sur papier monté sur carton - Phototypie
8.9 x 11.7 cm
Don de Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.1163.11
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In 1960 my father was appointed by prime minister Jean Lesage (1912-1980) to serve as Leader of the Legislative Council and Minister without Portfolio and acting Minister of Finance. Mr. Lesage served as prime minister from 1960 to 1966. The legislative council was disbanded in 1968. During provincial electoral campaigns, Mr. Lesage spoke authoritatively about the affairs of the province.


05461
Photograph
Alfred Edmund Walker (1820-1902)
05461

Commentaires:

Thomas Walker (1784-1857), came to Ontario in 1834 with 4 children and some pictures, one by Angelica Kaufmann, now in my hands. His wife and several of his children died of natural causes in London, England, where he worked as a maker of watchcases, maintaining a shop on Eastcastle Street near Oxford Street. One of his sons, Alfred Edmund Walker (1820-1902), a clerk, was also an amateur painter. painting woodland scenes in watercolour on paper. He married Fanny Murton, of Hamilton, Ontario by whom he had 7 children among whom, Sir Edmund Walker, my great uncle, and Herbert Barber Walker, my grandfather. Their brothers were Percy and Sydney, and their sisters were Bella, Nettie and Edith.


05424
Painting
Sir Edmund Walker (1848-1924)
05424

Commentaires:

Sir Edmund Walker (1848-1924) served as President of the Canadian Bank of Commerce from 1907 though 1924.

On July 24th, 1918, the Directors of the Canadian Bank of Commerce gave a dinner in honor of their President, Sir Edmund Walker, C.V.O., L.L.D., D.C.L., the occasion being the fiftieth anniversary of the day on which he entered the service of the Bank. The dinner was held in Toronto at the banqueting hall of the King Edward Hotel After reading numerous letters and telegrams of congratulation to Sir Edmund, the chairman proposed the toast of the evening and said:

"He is the most many-sided man I have ever met and I have known him for many years. He entered the bank's service in 1868 at the age of 20 and rose rapidly. From 1872 through 1881 he served as the Bank's agent in New York City. He became General Manager of the Bank in 1886 and President in 1907. He was a Trustee of the University of Toronto, the Royal Ontario Museum and the National Gallery of Art. Being an avid Collector of Japanese art on which subject he wrote books." Sir Edmund responded to this and many other tributes recounting that he had been influenced by his father He said: at home we talked about flowers, music, fossils, science, and a new poem - nothing very learned or difficult

He and his younger brother, Herbert Barber Walker (1859-1943), my grandfather, used to buy Japanese colour block prints (ukiyo-e) at auctions in New York City, 1904 - 1908. They collected 1070 prints, their families contributing them to the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto in 1926.

Sources:

See also The Dictionary of Canadian Biography - Sir Byron Edmund Walker at

http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=42011&query=Walker


05415
Photograph
Herbert B. Walker
1932
05415

Commentaires:

Herbert B. Walker (1859-1943), my grandfather, worked as manager of the Canadian Bank of Commerce in Chicago (1898-1901}, Toronto (1901-1904)and New York City (1904-1908).

My grandmother Mrs. Herbert Barber Walker nee Annabelle Fraser (1865-1927), was one of 8 daughters and 3 sons of Alexander Fraser, M.P P. of Northumberland County, Ontario (1824-1888).

While in New York, they lived at 93 Hudson Terrace in Yonkers.

As manager of the Canadian Bank of Commerce in Montreal (1908-1924), they lived at the Linton Apartments on Sherbrooke St. West while constructing the family house at 1559 McGregor Street, (Avenue Dr. Penfield), diagonally opposite the Learmont's House.

Their children were Herbert Fraser Walker (1891-1929), an officer in the Black Watch during World War I, and Phyllis Constance Walker (1899-1986)


MP-0000.867.5
© Musée McCord
Impression
La rue Saint-Jacques en direction est, Montréal, QC, vers 1910
Anonyme - Anonymous
Vers 1910, 20e siècle
Encre sur papier monté sur carton - Demi-ton
26 x 19 cm
Don de Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.867.5
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

L'activité économique provoque d'importants réaménagements de l'espace dans l'agglomération. Le centre-ville se couvre de tours à bureaux qui abritent le siège social des grandes entreprises. La rue Saint-Jacques devient le lieu de pouvoir économique le plus important au Canada.
La zone industrielle du canal de Lachine s'étend vers l'ouest, celle de Sainte-Marie-Hochelaga s'étire en direction de Maisonneuve et de Longue-Pointe, tandis que l'industrie du vêtement connaît une poussée vers le nord, dans l'axe de la rue Saint-Laurent.

Quoi:

Les anglophones traduisaient par « Saint James Street » le nom de la rue Saint-Jacques, l'une des plus anciennes artères du Vieux-Montréal. Au début du XXe siècle, les banques et plusieurs autres institutions financières ont leur siège social ou une succursale importante le long de cette rue.

Où:

Le deuxième immeuble du côté gauche abrite la principale succursale montréalaise de la Banque Canadienne de Commerce, de Toronto. Avec ses énormes colonnes, il est très représentatif de l'architecture bancaire de l'époque, qui cherche à donner une image de solidité.

Quand:

L'immeuble de la Banque Canadienne de Commerce est construit entre 1907 et 1909. Une cinquantaine d'années plus tard, la banque (aujourd'hui la CIBC) déménagera son centre montréalais dans un immeuble du nouveau centre-ville, à l'angle des rues Dorchester (l'actuel boulevard René-Lévesque) et Peel.

Qui:

Les milliers d'employés (en 1910, ce sont encore surtout des hommes) qui travaillent dans les immeubles à bureaux du centre-ville s'y rendent en tramway. Les quatre tramways qui se suivent au centre de la rue Saint-Jacques illustrent l'importance de ce moyen de transport.

05457
Photograph
Mrs. Herbert B. Walker nee Annabella Jane Fraser (1865-1927)
1894
05457

M969.25.5
© Musée McCord
Corset, modèle « Le Merveilleux »
Vers 1900, 20e siècle
32.7 x 38.3 cm
Don de Mrs. George Daly
M969.25.5
© Musée McCord

Description:

À la toute fin des années 1890 est apparue une nouvelle silhouette modelée par un style de corset entièrement redessiné. Créé en réaction à la controverse entourant les effets du laçage excessivement serré, le corset « santé » à devant droit offrait une silhouette plus naturelle tout en donnant l'illusion d'une belle taille fine. Une nouveauté pleine d'attraits en raison des nouvelles possibilités d'activités dont jouissaient désormais les femmes. Les baleines du nouveau corset offraient plus d'ampleur pour le devant du corps, mais comprimaient néanmoins la taille sur les côtés et à l'arrière. La silhouette en S qui en résultait est devenue de plus en plus accentuée au cours de la décennie suivante.

Clefs de l'histoire:

Aujourd'hui, l'une des questions les plus controversées concernant les femmes est la minceur irréaliste des top modèles et des vedettes de cinéma. Or, dans les années 1870 et 1880, le tour de taille « standard » pour une femme était d'environ 46 cm (18 pouces).

Mais ce remarquable exploit ne pouvait être réalisé qu'à l'aide d'un corset. Fabriqué à partir de fanons de baleine ou de tiges de métal ou encore d'élastiques cousus à même un vêtement de coton, de soie, de satin ou de caoutchouc, le corset rétrécissait la taille quand on en serrait les lacets, autant que la dame le désirait. Comme cette opération exigeait habituellement l'aide d'une domestique, les femmes qui voulaient être à la mode ne pouvaient se vêtir seules. Jadis, le corset était porté par les hommes, les femmes et même les enfants de l'aristocratie, mais dans les années1860, il constituait surtout un vêtement féminin.

Le corset limitait grandement la mobilité de la personne qui le portait. Plus tard, il en est venu à symboliser toutes les restrictions sociales et politiques imposées aux femmes de cette époque.

Source : circuit web 'À l'ombre de Lui' de Elise Chenier, Université McGill (Voir sous l'onglet Liens)

Quoi:

Ce corset en soie et en satin doublé de coton et garni de ruban de dentelle et de soie est doté de baleines en métal recouvertes de twill de soie. Il s'attache par devant au moyen d'agrafes en oeillet métalliques ; pour le serrer, on tire sur des lacets de soie situés à l'arrière.

Où:

Ce corset a été confectionné à Paris, en France, à la fin du XIXe siècle.

Quand:

Les corsets enserraient toujours la taille, mais l'apparence recherchée a considérablement varié d'une décennie à l'autre.

Qui:

Cet article appartenait probablement à une femme fortunée, même si le corset était un dessous porté par les femmes de toutes les classes sociales.

II-286847.0
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Mme Herbert B. Walker dans un transatlantique, 1559 Av. McGregor, Montréal, QC, copiée pour Mme Herbert B. Walker en 1928
Copie réalisée en 1928, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
12.7 x 17.8 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-286847.0
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

John Fraser (1795-1852), Alexander's father, was born at Torbreck, Kirkhill, in 1795. He was a merchant at Inverness and Provost from 1834-1836. He married firstly Lilias Fraser of Kirkhill (1804-1835). Their daughter Isabelle was born in 1830 and died in 1837, and their daughter Annabelle died in infancy in 1833. Lilias Fraser died in 1835. John Fraser emigrated to Canada in 1837 with his sons Alexander (1824-1888), Donald (1825-1892), William, and John (1832-1871).

John Fraser married secondly Selina Torrance (1814-1874) of Montreal in 1839. One of their children was Lilias Elizabeth Fraser (1814-1879) who in 1870 married John George Savage.

Alexander Fraser MPP of Cobourg, Ontario, (1824-1888) married (1850) Mary Meade Torrance. Mary Meade Torrance was born in Quebec in 1829 and died in Windsor, Ontario in 1904. Their first daughter, Mary Lilias Fraser, born in 1851, married R, N. Mathieson, whose children were Amy and Elsie Mathieson. Their second daughter, Selina Fraser, born in 1853, married Henry Holland, whose children were Arthur, Henry, Helen and Theresa Holland. Their first son, John Edward Fraser a.k.a. Uncle Jack, born in 1855, married Anna Sexton, whose children were Alexander, Ethel and Linda Fraser. Their second son, William I. Fraser, born in 1858, married Daisy Doane, whose children were Grace and Ethel Fraser. Their third daughter, Theresa Gordon Fraser, born in 1859, died in 1883. Their third son, Frederick Laing Fraser, born in 1852, married Bessie Beattie, whose children were Marjorie and Elizabeth Fraser. Their fourth daughter, Amy Millicent Fraser, born in 1863, married Theodore Arnold Haultain, (1857-1941) a.k.a. Uncle Theo, a prolific essayist and author of The Secret of Golf (1905), whose children were Theodore, John, and Audrey Haultain Their fifth daughter, Annabella Jane Fraser (1865-1927), married Herbert Barber Walker (1859-1943) whose children were Herbert Fraser Walker and Phyllis Constance Walker. Their sixth daughter, Alice Mead Fraser, born in 1866, married Dr. Henry Raymond Casgrain a.k.a. Uncle Raymie, a cofounder of the Ontario Medical Association and the son of Senator J.P. Casgrain. Their seventh daughter, Edith Fraser, born in 1868, died in 1900. Their eighth daughter, Madeline Follett Fraser, born in 1869, married James E. Durand, whose children were Mary and Louise Durand. Their fourth son, Stewart Alexander Fraser, born in 1872, married Sarah Noble, whose children were Stewart Alexander, Charles Noble, Mary Francis and Donald Fraser.


II-59736.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Mme John. G. Savage, Montréal, QC, 1881
Notman & Sandham
1881, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur papier - Papier albuminé
17.8 x 12.7 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-59736.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Lilias Elizabeth Fraser (1845-1891) married John George Savage (1840-1922) in 1870. Their first daughter, Lilias Fraser Savage, married William van Kirk. Their first son, Alfred Savage, died in infancy. Their second son, John Fraser Savage, married Edith Margaret Cassils, whose children were John Murray Savage, Margaret Amy Savage, Gordon Cassils Savage and Edith Elizabeth Savage. Their second daughter, Selina Torrance Fraser Savage, married John Earl Birks, whose children were John Earl Birks, Arthur Henry Birks, Peter Fraser Birks, and Richard Savage Birks, M.D. Their third daughter Winifred Fraser Savage married George Wardrup Grier, whose children were George Arthur Grier, Sarah Elizabeth Grier, Arthur David Grier and Georgina Winifred Grier. Their third son, Harold Murchison Savage, married Jean George, whose children were William Kerr George Savage and Roger Fraser Donaldson Savage. Their fourth son, Edward Baldwin Fraser Savage, married Marion Douglas Crubman, whose children were Hugh Baldwin Savage, Lilias Margaret Savage and Marion Douglas Savage.

John George Savage married a second wife, Helen, and had at least four children by her. One was Anne Savage, a famous Canadian painter of the Beaver Hall Group. Anne's twin brother Donaldson Savage died November 15, 1916 at the Somme.

Sources:

Sources: Data kindly furnished by Mr. Kerry Martin from a blueprint of the Fraser/Torrance family trees, discovered in the attic of the family house at Metis Beach. Quebec.
Data re John George Savage's 2nd marriage kindly furnished by Mrs. Helen Kominek, a Montreal genealogist.


VIEW-12777
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Immeuble d'appartements Linton, rue Sherbrooke, Montréal, QC, 1912-1913
Wm. Notman & Son
1912-1913, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-12777
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

Vivre comme à l'hôtel

Au début du 20e siècle, les immeubles d'appartements se répandent dans les villes canadiennes . Ces grands immeubles sont conçus pour répondre aux attentes d'une clientèle spécifique, et la distribution des pièces sur un même niveau simplifie l'entretien de la demeure. Attirés par les commodités de ces nouveaux logements, les ménages aisés y voient une solution de rechange aux grandes maisons dont l'entretien nécessite une armée de personnel domestique de plus en plus difficile à recruter.

Ceux qui choisissent ce mode de vie profitent de plusieurs innovations et services intégrés à l'immeuble qui leur rendent la vie très confortable : ascenseur, chauffage central, garage, sonnerie électrique, central téléphonique, services de concierge, de teinturier et de traiteur complété par un système de monte-plat. C'est comme vivre à l'hôtel !

En ce qui concerne le téléphone, le taux d'équipement d'un immeuble comme le Linton à Montréal est très supérieur à la moyenne de la ville. En 1910, près de 75 p. 100 des résidants sont abonnés, alors qu'on ne compte que 6 téléphones pour 100 habitants à l'échelle de l'agglomération urbaine.

Quoi:

Conçu par les architectes Samuel Arnold Finley et David Jerome Spence, l'immeuble Linton est érigé entre 1906 et 1907. On y compte 90 appartements. C'est le plus vaste à Montréal au moment de sa construction.

Où:

La rue Sherbrooke à Montréal est une rue résidentielle de prestige où les immeubles collectifs remplacent les résidences bourgeoises.

Quand:

Avant la Première Guerre mondiale, plusieurs immeubles d'appartements sont construits dans les grandes villes canadiennes.

Qui:

Plusieurs occupants du Linton, notamment des femmes, y vivent en solo.

05417
Photograph
Capt. Herbert Fraser Walker (1891-1929) at Training Camp in Farnham, QC
March 1915
05417

05394
Certificate
Capt. Herbert Fraser Walker (1891-1929)
Attestation of Mlitary Service
September 28, 1914
05394

Commentaires:

"Over 600,000 Canadians enlisted in the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) during the First World War (1914-1918). The CEF database is an index to those personnel files, which are held by the National Archives. To date, over 800,000 images of Attestation papers have been scanned and are being made available on-line."

Credits : National Archives of Canada

Sources:

http://www.collectionscanada.ca/archivianet.html

Search Database of Attestations of Military Service during World War I.


05466
Photograph
Mrs. Herbert F. Walker nee Evelyn Davis
1925
05466

Commentaires:

Capt. Herbert Fraser Walker married Evelyn Davis on December 24, 1914. Their children were Diana Leigh Walker and John Murton Walker.

Diana married Donald Taylor, a paratrooper, after WW II. They lived in the Eastern Townships and farmed mink until the end of their lives in the 1970s.


05455
Photograph
Phyllis C. Walker (1899-1986)
1916
05455

Commentaires:

The Canadian Bank of Commerce had posted Herbert Barber Walker (1859-1943) to Chicago in 1899, so that my mother was born in Kenilworth, in a fine mansion provided by the Bank. Later, from 1904 to 1908, he was posted to New York and lived at 93 Hudson Terrace in Yonkers. He had to walk up a steep hill returning home at night by train from the City. He and his wife would occasionally go out to dinner, calling a horse and cab for transport. As a girl of eight my mother would take the train into the City and out again to the Bronx Zoo to enjoy visiting the animals. A magnolia tree stood in the yard. Her neighbour was Ellsworth Bunker (1894-1984), later a famous U.S. diplomat. In 1907 he wrote to my grandfather apologizing for accidentally throwing a ball through a window of the house.


VIEW-8736
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Hôtel Ritz Carleton, rue Sherbrooke, Montréal, QC, vers 1938
Wm. Notman & Son
1936-1940, 20e siècle
Gélatine argentique
17 x 12 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-8736
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

The Ritz Carleton Hotel opened in 1913. My mother, Phyllis C. Marler nee Walker (1899-1986) told me that Hugh Andrew Allan (1857-1938), my Great Aunt Beatrice Marler's grandfather, was charmed by the Ritz and urged his friends to patronize the hotel. A friend of my mother designed the elegant garden around the duck pond outside the main dining room. In 1919, my mother went to Saturday afternoon tea dances where she would meet some of her brother Herbert Walker's fellow officers from the Black Watch, veterans of World War I. My mother took me to the barber at the Ritz from 1935.onwards. In 1971, we were shown the Royal Suite just before the Queen Mother visited Montreal. The Maritime Bar, now closed, was our favorite restaurant. In 1980, my daughter, Charlotte de M. Marler then age 7 was invited by maitre Pierre Payant of the Ritz to draw Easter pictures on the blackboard for decoration.


05429
Photograph
Mrs. George C. Marler nee Phyllis C. Walker (1899-1986)
1939
05429

Commentaires:

Mother was the source of learning in my early years. The reading book contained such sentences as "I see Sam. Sam sees me." Arithmetic came next with simple sums. Handwriting came in plain letters and later in script. She would sing hymns and nursery rhymes while playing the piano. In the spring of 1937, she gave me the Sunday New York Times, a pair of children's scissors, a pot of paste and a large scrapbook. I fell quickly into an every weekend habit of cutting out photographs from the Sunday paper, so that over a period of years, I had documented the life and times of Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.

Life was pretty disciplined, with an unvarying routine of children's breakfast, lunch and teatime with lots of supervision by nanny. Of course there were days off for the servants. In 1937, we had acquired the services of a beloved Scottish governess, Miss Small. She was diminutive in size and adoring in temperament. In the afternoon, she would invite me into her room to listen to the BBC on a short wave radio. I clearly remember speeches by Adolf Hitler starting with "Deutsche Herren und Deutsche Frauen". In the fall of 1937, adult conversation dwelled on the new book "Mein Kampf" in which Adolf Hitler articulated his bizarre and alarming philosophy. My grandfather Herbert's nephew Ewart Walker visited one autumn weekend and spoke decisively about the gathering clouds of war.

On grey, rainy days, I used to sit on the upholstered bench in the bow window of the living room overlooking McGregor Street. There, I could observe the occasional car passing and more predictably, the baker's cart that stopped every weekday noon to deliver bread. I especially remember the two horses stopping to have lunch from a khaki feedbag of oats. The horses always left a deposit of fresh manure, but no one other than the city street cleaners, gathered it up to use as fertilizer.


05459
Photograph
H. B. Walker Residence, 27 (later 1559) McGregor Street, Montreal, QC
1910
05459

Commentaires:

The house at 1559 McGregor Street, Montreal, was 3 stories high, and had been built in 1908 by my grandfather, Herbert Barber Walker (1859-1943), then Manager of the Canadian Bank of Commerce branch in Montreal. He was a gentleman to the core, with a white handle bar moustache and an always kind demeanour. When I reached the age of four, he would seat me on his knee and ask me to spell the word "corporation'. As a reward, he would place a wooden safety matchstick (Eddy's) in his white linen handkerchief, and ask me if I had the strength to break it.

The dining room looked like a scene from a Rembrandt painting. A Tiffany overhead light in orange glass was embellished with a brown silk fringe. The fireplace was tiled in blue. The gas logs cast eerie shadows. The walls were in blue grasscloth. A Satsuma pottery plate, enamel over gold background, from the end of the 18th century, hung on the wall. The Sheraton sideboard emitted the sweet aroma of fine sherry and contained the silver and the spirits. Over the sideboard, hung a painting by Jansen (circa 1850), entitled "Milking Time at Blaricum". A cow, standing in a field, looks up at an elderly lady approaching with a milking stool. The silver service had been purchased by my grandfather in 1904 at Tiffany's in New York City. Spirits included a bottle of Metaxa brandy donated by Mr. Kolivas, a Greek Canadian owner of the Chalet, a large restaurant on Mount Royal overlooking the City of Montreal, stretched below. Otherwise, spirits always included Dewar's Scotch Whiskey, Seagram's Rye Whisky, Gordon's Gin, White Vermouth, Harvey's Shooting Sherry, Cognac and assorted liqueurs.

On the great holidays, namely, Christmas, New Year's Day, Easter, and Thanksgiving, leaves were added to the mahogany dining table and the set of 12 Chippendale chairs were arranged around the table with perfect symmetry. Our much esteemed grandmother, Mrs. William Marler nee Harriet Jamieson (1865-1954) and various aunts and cousins were added to the family circle. .I adored these occasions, as visitors brought new topics of conversation,

Each table setting had a series of knives, forks and spoons, including mother of pearl handled fruit knives and forks, ivory handled fish knives, and for each place mat, a water glass and a set of wine glasses accommodating sherry, white wine, red wine and liqueur. The table maid was dressed in magenta with a white lace apron. Ladies wore their most precious dresses and jewellery, and gentlemen wore suits with vests and pocket watches on gold chains. My sisters wore frocked dresses, and I was made presentable in a blue blazer with a white shirt, a yellow and black school tie and grey flannel shorts.

Dinner had many courses: soup, salad, roast beef with Yorkshire pudding, mashed potatoes, green beans, gravy, horseradish sauce; savouries, ice cream with hot maple syrup and walnuts. fresh fruit, cheese and biscuits and chocolate mints. Once the last course had been consumed, my mother would ask the rhetorical question "Shall we have coffee in the drawing room?" The great sliding doors that separated the drawing room from the dining room would be opened to admit all the guests, and then closed so that the domestic staff could accomplish their mission


05420
Photograph
Drawing Room at 1559 McGregor Street, Montreal, QC
Eric Marler, M.D.
About 1946
05420

Commentaires:

The drawing room was 20 feet wide and 30 feet long with a 12 foot high ceiling. The décor was distinctly Edwardian: a golden brown carpet; silkscreen wallpaper; a gallery of impressionist paintings; chintz sofas; Chippendale tables; Galle and Quezal flower vases; Royal Doulton vases and figurines.


05436
Photograph
Eve, Eric and June Marler at 1559 McGregor Street, Montreal, QC
Autumn 1935
05436

Commentaires:

McGregor Street was the epicentre of my early years. Mother would take me for walks along the street, pointing to houses and recounting the story of each owner. Over many years, I came to know something of the history of enterprise in Montreal. From her description, it was apparent that McGregor Street had once been the site of a farm and that the land had once belonged to the Gentlemen of Saint Sulpice, whose country retreat was located on vast holdings on Sherbrooke Street West between Atwater Avenue to the West and Cote des Neiges to the East. As Montreal merchants began to prosper in the latter half of the 19th century, lots were sold and large houses built, typically with 15 to 20 rooms.


M990.786.20.1
© Musée McCord
Costume de religieuse
Costume de religieuse de la Congrégation de Notre-Dame
Vers 1940, 20e siècle
Don du Musée du Château Dufresne
M990.786.20.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

As a boy I gained inspiration from the sight of nuns in their habits on city streets.

Clefs de l'histoire:

Ce costume a été porté par une soeur de la Congrégation de Notre-Dame. Cette congrégation fut fondée à Montréal en 1652 par Marguerite Bourgeoys (1620-1700), qui était venue de France afin d'ouvrir une école dans le petit établissement de Ville-Marie. Les enfants à l'époque étant peu nombreux, les soeurs de cette congrégation venaient aussi en aide aux malades et aux nécessiteux.

De ces débuts modestes, la Congrégation de Notre-Dame a pris de l'expansion pour devenir un ordre enseignant très respecté, dont les couvents ont éduqué plusieurs générations de jeunes Montréalaises. La Congrégation fit l'acquisition du domaine connu sous le nom de « Monklands » en 1854, y fondant l'actuel couvent Villa-Maria. L'édifice principal, construit en 1804, a été déclaré monument historique et abrite aujourd'hui une école de filles.

Quoi:

Au Québec, chaque congrégation religieuse avait un costume différent dont le principal élément distinctif était la coiffe, qui était pliée, drapée ou plissée différemment selon la congrégation.

Où:

Cet habit a été porté à Montréal par les soeurs de la Congrégation de Notre-Dame.

Quand:

La forme originale de l'habit a peu changé depuis le XVIIe siècle, quoique certains matériaux modernes y aient été incorporés.

Qui:

Pendant de nombreuses années, des religieuses de Notre-Dame suivies d'un groupe d'écolières fut une scène familière dans les rues de Montréal.

MP-0000.27.69
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Bétail sur le chemin de la Côte-des-Neiges, Montréal, QC, vers 1900
Wallis & Shepherd
Vers 1900, 19e siècle ou 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
6 x 8 cm
MP-0000.27.69
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In 1936, I used to visit the pig that lived on Evelyn McInnes' property at 1625 Pine Avenue near Cotes des Neiges, later the site of the Montreal General Hospital. Evelyn Reford nee McInnes was best friends with my mother, Phyllis Marler (1899-1986) nee Walker. Evelyn's father was Mr. W. R. McInnes, Vice President of the Canadian Pacific Railway.

Clefs de l'histoire:

Sur cette photographie prise vers 1900, un petit troupeau de vaches emprunte le chemin de la Côte-des-Neiges, qui traverse la ville de Montréal. Au 19e siècle, de nombreuses familles élèvent à Montréal des animaux tels que cochons, vaches et volailles. Ces derniers constituent une source de nourriture et de revenu.

Avant les années 1860, par souci d'hygiène et de santé publique, des règlements municipaux tentent d'empêcher la circulation des animaux dans les rues - avec un succès mitigé si l'on en juge par la photographie. Par la suite, il ne sera plus permis de laisser paître des animaux dans les lieux publics et de garder « dans une maison ou un logement un cheval, une vache, un veau, un cochon, un mouton, une chèvre ou une volaille ». En 1868, l'élevage des cochons est interdit dans les quartiers de Montréal les plus densément peuplés. Il est finalement banni dans toute la ville en 1874.

Malgré tout, les animaux ne disparaissent pas du paysage urbain. En 1889, il existe à Montréal environ 500 étables pour les vaches. En 1891, ce sont les animaux d'élevage les plus nombreux à Montréal, leur nombre dépassant même celui de la volaille. Pourtant, l'élevage des vaches coûte cher et c'est un luxe que les ouvriers non qualifiés - les plus pauvres - ne peuvent généralement pas s'offrir.

Quoi:

La technique de prise de vue sur plaque sèche, mise au point en 1878, a été utilisée pour cette photographie.

Où:

Cette photographie a pu être prise sur une section du chemin de la Côte-des-Neiges qui, à l'époque, traverse Montréal et les municipalités de Notre-Dame des Neiges et de Notre-Dame des Neiges Ouest. Ces deux municipalités seront annexées à Montréal en 1907 et 1910.

Quand:

Au 19e siècle, de nombreuses familles élèvent à Montréal des animaux tels que cochons, vaches et volailles. Ces derniers constituent une source de nourriture et de revenu.

Qui:

Cette photographie attribuée à Wallis et Shepherd a été prise vers 1900.

VIEW-26169
© Musée McCord
Photographie
La coupe de la glace avec un cheval tirant les blocs de glace, peinture de Cornelius Krieghoff, copie réalisée pour la galerie d'art Watson, 1938-1940
Wm. Notman & Son
1938-1940, 20e siècle
Gélatine argentique
19 x 24 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-26169
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In those days, blocks of ice were cut from the Saint Lawrence River, transported by horse to the river's edge and thence to storage in ice houses, 30 feet below ground in saw dust. Ice was delivered by horse and cart to the back door, brought into the house, block by block with ice tongs, and placed in the upper compartment of the wooden refrigerator. In turn the fridge was lined with zinc with a metal tub underneath for periodic drainage.

On Sundays, my father would make ice chips, which he would mix with rock salt, to surround the metal container of the wooden ice cream bucket, which he would turn for 20 minutes before the rich cream and sugar and vanilla would congeal into ice cream. The ice cream was then served with hot maple syrup and chopped walnuts. Ice cream represented the culmination of Sunday home cuisine and the acme of family life.


VIEW-1577.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Déneigement, rue Notre-Dame, Montréal, QC, vers 1887
Wm. Notman & Son
Vers 1887, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur papier - Papier albuminé
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-1577.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Winters in Montreal of the 1940s were glacial. The frost on the windows made beautiful patterns, even landscapes. Snowbanks were at least 6 feet high by February. The average snowfall in winter was 120 inches. Gangs of workers cleared the sidewalks after each snow storm, using coal ashes and sand to keep pedestrians from slipping and falling on the ice. Horses and ploughs were used to clear the streets. The granite steps to the house were covered with salt and sand to secure passage.


MP-0000.820.9
© Musée McCord
Impression
La rue Guy en hiver, Montréal, QC, vers 1910
Anonyme - Anonymous
Vers 1910, 20e siècle
Encre sur papier monté sur carton - Phototypie
8 x 13 cm
Don de Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.820.9
© Musée McCord

VIEW-8803
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Plombiers réparant un radiateur à eau chaude, 1909
Wm. Notman & Son
1909, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
25 x 20 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-8803
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

La mise en place d'infrastructures aussi importantes que l'aqueduc et le réseau d'égouts nécessite une main-d'oeuvre spécialisée. On fait de plus en plus appel aux plombiers pour installer les drains et tuyaux qui relient les maisons et les immeubles aux nouvelles installations urbaines. Au début des années 1890, le Conseil de ville de Montréal adopte un règlement relatif aux plombiers, aux drains et à la ventilation des bâtisses. On réglemente ainsi un métier qui prend les allures d'une véritable profession. Comment peut-on se passer des plombiers au moment où chaque demeure requiert l'installation des toilettes et d'un bain ? Ce sont les plombiers qui s'occuperont d'installer ces nouveautés, qui deviendront vite indispensables. Pensons-y un peu. Pourrait-on imaginer, aujourd'hui, vivre sans ces commodités ?

Source : circuit web 'Des villes et des métiers en mutation' de Robert Gagnon, Université du Québec à Montréal (Voir sous l'onglet Liens)

Quoi:

Cette photographie a été réalisée par le studio Notman et Fils. On y voit deux plombiers installant ou réparant un calorifère, appareil de chauffage bien en vogue depuis la construction du grand aqueduc de Montréal, au milieu du 19e siècle.

Où:

Il s'agit d'une photographie probablement prise à Montréal où, depuis le milieu du siècle, l'aqueduc approvisionne en eau toutes les demeures qui sont alors équipées de toilettes, d'un bain et d'un système de chauffage par eau chaude.

Quand:

La photographie a été prise en 1909.

Qui:

Deux hommes pratiquant un métier en plein essor dans les grandes villes à cette époque : plombier.

II-88120.0
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Service du thé, copié en 1888
Anonyme - Anonymous
1888, 19e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
17 x 12 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-88120.0
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

At our house, tea was served in the drawing room at 4:00 p.m. The table maid would mobilize the mahogany tea table and cover it with an Irish linen table cloth. A large silver tray was placed on the tea table carrying a silver tea pot, hot water pot, milk jug, sugar bowl with sugar cubes and tongs. Royal Crown Derby tea cups and silver tea spoons were reserved for guests. Otherwise Minton tea cups were used. A brass plate stand was placed nearby with a plate of cucumber sandwiches, cut in quarters without crusts, a plate of freshly baked cookies, and petits fours or a cake with icing. In the 1930s, I would arrive home from school on foot and would be served a glass of milk flavored with a little tea and a cucumber sandwich. The tea was Lapsang Souchong, a black, aromatic Chinese tea that I still adore today. Tea leaves were filtered out when pouring tea through a tea strainer.

Clefs de l'histoire:

À la fin du XIXe siècle, la femme de la bourgeoisie doit idéalement engager au moins une bonne à tout faire pour que sa famille puisse se distinguer de la classe ouvrière et faire partie tout au moins de la classe moyenne inférieure.

Les tâches assignées aux domestiques varient selon qu'il n'y a qu'une seule servante dans la maison ou plusieurs. La domestique qui travaille seule doit habituellement faire le ménage, la cuisine et les courses, en plus d'entretenir le jardin et de s'occuper des enfants. La journée de travail de la servante était donc en moyenne de 15 heures. Parfois, les journées pouvaient durer jusqu'à 18 heures, puisque les grands dîners auxquels prenaient part les familles des classes aisées avaient lieu vers 19 ou 20 heures.

Par rapport aux autres travailleurs, les servantes étaient parfois privilégiées puisqu'elles étaient nourries et logées et qu'elles avaient la possibilité de mettre un peu d'argent de côté .

Quoi:

Selon des contrats signés entre des domestiques et leurs employeurs au début des années 1870, les jeunes filles gagnaient environ 76 $ par année, ce qui contribuait énormément aux maigres revenus de la famille.

Où:

Il arrivait à l'occasion que les jeunes filles soient placées comme domestiques parce que leurs propres familles n'avaient pas les moyens de les faire vivre. Elles étaient parfois mieux logées, nourries et habillées chez leur employeur qu'à la maison.

Quand:

À la fin du XIXe siècle, la servante typique de Montréal était célibataire, au début de la vingtaine et originaire d'un milieu rural du Québec ou d'Europe.

Qui:

Avant 1900, le service domestique était le travail rémunéré le plus répandu chez les femmes canadiennes.

VIEW-14924
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Résidence de George Caverhill, rue Simpson, Montréal, QC, 1915
Wm. Notman & Son
1915, 20e siècle
Gélatine argentique
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-14924
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

The house stood at the top of Simpson Street, opposite the Trafalgar Institute, a leading school for girls. The first crocuses of spring used to bloom at the front of the property, bringing hope to all who passed by.


II-105754
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Résidence de W.W. Ogilvie, « Rosemount », rue McGregor, Montréal, QC, 1894
Wm. Notman & Son
1894, 19e siècle
Gélatine argentique
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-105754
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

At the end of McGregor Street, there was a park, named Ogilvie's Park, later renamed Percy Walters' Park. In the upper corner of the park stood Rosemount, a once imposing red brick residence where Prince Arthur, later King Edward VII, stayed in 1860 during his visit to Montreal. Rosemount belonged to Sir John Rose who sold it to Mr. William Watson Ogilvie, a principal in the flour business.

Ogilvie's Park was at the core of my early childhood. It was there that uniformed nannies gathered with their charges and their perambulators. It was there that we climbed maple trees, collected horse chestnuts, smelled the rotting brown fruit of the Gingko tree, climbed the hawthorn tree, It was there, in the icy winter, that we built snow forts, conducted raging snowball fights, sleighed, skied, and rolled in the snow During World War II, I played on occasion with Raine McCorquodale (1929-), later Countess Raine Spencer, step-mother of Princess Diana Spencer (1961-1997)


MP-0000.25.1022
© Musée McCord
Photographie, diapositive sur verre
Skieurs sur le mont Royal, Montréal, QC, vers 1930
Anonyme - Anonymous
Vers 1930, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
8 x 10 cm
Don de Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.25.1022
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

During the winter of 1936, the famous Austrian skier Hannes Schneider's book on skiing was published in English. On Sundays, my father and mother would take us children skiing on Mount Royal. Although it was a long walk from McGregor Street to Beaver Lake, once there, we would ski in deep snow on the slopes. On a special occasion, my father took me ice tobogganing on the toboggan run ending in Beaver Lake. The run was elevated, lined with ice, and the sleighs had been made by Eskimos and equipped with smooth bone runners. The descent was terrifying, as the sleds reached a speed of 60 miles per hour. On weekday holidays, my mother would take us skating on Beaver Lake. And on occasion, we would walk all the way to the Chalet which overlooks the entire City of Montreal. Because the snow was often deep, and the harnesses of the late 1930s were well adapted to cross country skiing, we learned early to use the herringbone pattern when climbing hills, and to use the snow plow turn when descending. The Christie was reserved for hills where the snow was packed or icy.


VIEW-1582
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Toboggan au parc du Mont-Royal, Montréal, Qc, 1885
Wm. Notman & Son
1885, 19e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-1582
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

Cette photo composite présente les membres du Club de la Tuque Bleue pratiquant leur sport d'hiver préféré sur les flancs du Mont Royal.

Inauguré en 1876, le parc du Mont Royal est alors considéré par l'élite anglophone du « Mile Carré Doré » comme le prolongement « naturel » de leur quartier, et celle-ci imagine mal que ce parc puisse être accessible à tous. En conséquence, une frontière imaginaire divise le Mont Royal en deux parties dès les années 1880. Pour les amateurs de sports d'hiver, cette division signifie que les « gens bien »glissent dans la partie ouest tandis que la jeunesse des quartiers populaires dévale les pentes du front est.

Toutefois la glissade, cette « folie nouvelle », ne plait pas à tout le monde. En 1885, l'évêque de Montréal, Monseigneur Fabre (1827-1896), met les catholiques en garde contre les occasions de péché associées à cette activité pratiquée à la fois par les hommes et par les femmes.

Quoi:

Pour les Amérindiens, le toboggan a longtemps été un moyen de transport indispensable. Au XIXe siècle, il devient plutôt une activité hivernale ludique.

Où:

Le Toboggan and Ski Club eut ses quartiers et ses équipements pendant plus de 60 ans sur les flancs du Mont Royal, près de l'actuel lac des castors.

Quand:

Pour les amateurs de sports d'hiver, le carnaval d'hiver a été le point culminant de la saison froide de 1883 à 1889.

Qui:

En milieu rural, le toboggan plaisait surtout aux enfants. Toutefois, cette activité était surtout pratiquée en milieu urbain par de jeunes adultes.

VIEW-2801-D1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Rue Sherbrooke, l'hiver, Montréal, Qc, 1896 (détail)
Wm. Notman & Son
1896, 19e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-2801-D1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In the 20th century, horse drawn sleighs were abundant in winter on Mount Royal just as they once were in the 19th century on Montreal streets.

Clefs de l'histoire:

Sur cet étonnant détail, un élégant traîneau d'hiver conduit par un cocher emmitouflé transporte deux femmes et un enfant. De toute évidence, l'équipage appartient à des gens très riches. L'une des deux femmes serait-elle en visite à Montréal ?

Quoi:

Où:

Quand:

Qui:


II-330462
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Les enfants Marler, Eric, Eve and June, Montréal, QC, 1943
Wm. Notman & Son
1943, 20e siècle
Gélatine argentique
17.8 x 12.7 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-330462
© Musée McCord

05438
Photograph
The House near the Royal St. Larence Yacht Club at Dorval, QC
1935
05438

Commentaires:

In the summer of 1936, the family, consisting of father and mother, 2 elder sisters, Eve and June, and the nanny spent the summer in a rented house on the edge of the St. Lawrence River at Dorval, not far from the Royal St. Lawrence Yacht Club on Lakeshore Road.

Next door lived a Mr. and Mrs. A.H. Scott complete with a Manchurian servant. Their house had been built in 1922 by Percy Nobbs, an important architect. The Manchurian servant had a long pigtail and wrote the laundry slips in Chinese in black ink with a brush. He was very kind to children, and I resolved to deploy my bucket and spade at the river's edge in a project to build a tunnel to China.

The house at Dorval was open and Victorian, full of pleasant breezes. The garage contained a 1929 Franklin automobile, stationed on a floor of sand. The Franklin had a long stick shift and a wonderful machine like smell. In the back seat, there was a dark green carriage blanket, a carry over from the days of the horse and carriage. On occasion we were taken to Decarie's farm to pick corn on the cob. Sunday lunch was eaten en famille with roast chicken as the main course. It was only in June, that the chicken was anything other than dry white meat. The legs were quickly devoured around the table.


MP-0000.1750.20.3
© Musée McCord
Impression
Petit-Métis, comté de Rimouski, QC, vers 1910
Anonyme - Anonymous
Vers 1910, 20e siècle
Encre sur carton - Phototypie
8 x 13 cm
Don de Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.1750.20.3
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Metis Beach may derive its name from the Mi'kmaq word (Miti'sg) denoting trees. The seigneur of Metis was Mathew McNider who acquired it in 1802 from successors of Jean-Baptiste de Peiras (1675-1701) and his daughter Élisabeth de Peiras. Later Mathew was succeeded by John McNider who scouted Scotland for colonists and imported about 30 families, equipping each family with supplies. These hardy settlers remain to this very day, living through harsh Metis winters. As early as 1829, a settler working for McNider wrote to the seigneur to say that his supply ship was a mess of planks upon the beach, and that the ship was not worth saving. So dire was winter that the settler ventured out during a snow storm only to return within a few hundred yards, for fear of being 'benighted'.

During the latter half of the 19th century, riverboats descended to Metis, propelled by steam engines fueled by wooden logs. Shipwrecks in the Saint Lawrence were frequent as described by G.R.Bosse of Leggatt's Point, a scholar and writer, a former member of the Coast Guard and a radio amateur.

Sources:

On Line Dictionary of Mi'kmaq

http://www.mikmaqonline.org/servlet/dictionaryFrameSet.html

A Preliminary Annotated Chronology and Bibliography of the Seigneury de Peiras or Mitis relating to the Aboriginal Prehistoric to Contemporary Presence by Gilbert R. Bossé, Eric Marler, M.D., et al.

http://autochtone.bravehost.com/bibliography/index.html

Navigating the Lower Saint Lawrence in the 19th Century by Gilbert R. Bosse.

http://del.icio.us/grbosse


VIEW-5223
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Hôtel Cascade, Métis-sur-Mer, QC, vers 1914
Wm. Notman & Son
Vers 1914, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-5223
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

By 1876, the Intercolonical railway extended from Montreal to the Maritimes with a railway station at Metis a few miles from Metis Beach. By 1910, a railway station had been constructed at Metis Beach. Summer visitors were met by car. Luggage and trunks were transported by horse and cart to the great wooden hotels: the Cascade Hotel, the Seaside Hotel, the Boule Rock Hotel, the Hillside, Metis Lodge, Turriff' Hall, St. Lawrence House, Sunny Bay, Ocean House, Green Gables, Parkwood and Leggatt's Point House (Killiekrankie).

Sources:

Metis Hotels - Heritage Lower St. Lawrence - Photographs and Text - e-mail heritagelstl@globetrotter.net


05426
Photograph
Marler Family House at Metis Beach, QC
©Eric Marler, M.D.
2006
05426

Commentaires:

In the summer of 1937, my father rented a house in Metis Beach (Metis sur Mer) in the estuary of the Saint Lawrence River.

Our summer house had been constructed in 1925 for Norman Seagram (1879-1969) born in Waterloo, Ontario. Norman Seagram, a stockbroker, was the son of Joseph E. Seagram of distillery fame and fortune. Norman Seagram had 5 children. He employed a good architect who designed a house with Georgian architecture containing 7 bedrooms, 4 bathrooms, a dining room, a pantry, a spacious kitchen, a sun room,, a drawing room, and a 135 foot long verandah. The master carpenter who built the house was Joseph (Joe) Rousseau of Metis Beach. He had jet black hair and dark brown eyes when I first met him. He was so skilled in his profession that he built the house with no more than 2 assistants in 2 years. His tool box consisted of saws, hammers, chisels, screw drivers, pliers, planes, rulers, measuring tapes and levels. Joseph E. Seagram and Sons was sold to Sam Bronfman in 1928.

In 1937, the house was acquired by the Cascade Hotel and rented to my father for the summer. The summers were glorious, with untrammeled access to the beaches, and the fields. There was a farm behind us operated by M. Lagace whose produce (hay, livestock, and apples) was sold to the Hotel. We were able to visit the farm and on occasion, mount the work horse for a short ride, or the cart for a hay ride. The house at that time was marked by a low stone wall that had served to keep the sheep grazing the front lawn from the house. The front lawn had until just recently served as the first hole of the Cascade Golf and Tennis Club. The house had a commanding view of the lighthouse. On foggy days, the foghorn would sound plaintively for hours. On rainy days, a favorite pastime was doing the 500 piece puzzle of the Queen Mary, the ship owned and operated as a trans-Atlantic steamer by Cunard.

Blissful summers were spent ever after at Metis. Fathers of families typically stayed in Montreal earning a living, so that wives and mothers had to assume responsibility for running the summer house and raising the children. Fathers would turn up for a couple of weeks in late July or early August, participate in the golf and tennis tournaments and social life, leaving mothers to pick up the pieces and return home to Montreal in time for school by Labor day.

In August 1944 Louis St. Laurent (1884-1973) Federal Minister of Justice and the right hand man of Prime Minister MacKenzie King visited my father at Metis. Mr. St. Laurent had a summer house at Father's Point some 50 miles up the St. Lawrence tosard Quebec City. They were joined by Mrs. Thérèse Casgrain nee Forget a leading advocate for social programs. They discussed the desirability of launching family allowances paid to mothers of families. The program was instituted subsequently in 1945.


MP-0000.1592
© Musée McCord
Impression
Hôtel Seaside House, Petit-Métis, QC, vers 1910
Anonyme - Anonymous
Vers 1910, 20e siècle
Encre sur carton - Phototypie
8 x 13 cm
Don de Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.1592
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

By the 1930s, during my childhood, as many as 1500 persons would visit the hotels. In addition, some 600 persons would occupy the wooden houses that had been constructed starting in 1850. On a typical morning, adults would play golf or tennis in white flannels and long skirts, and older gentleman would walk from one end of Metis to the other, wearing white flannels, blue blazers, cravats, and straw hats.

The hotels were usually constructed with 2nd grade spruce. The walls of the rooms were filled with knot holes. Fine dining was typical with Scottish cooking, and English speaking hotel staff from the neighbouring provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scoiia. The fare reflected Scottish tastes and local supplies. Lamb was a favorite meat and apple pie made from cooked green apples, a favorite desert.


05431
Photograph
Hon. George C. Marler and Mrs. Marler in the Garden
1960s
05431

Commentaires:

My father and mother created gardens from 1940 with the assistance of Mr. Camille Brochu, the gardener. My father specialized in the hybridization of lilies, registered a Marler lily and wrote articles for the Royal Horticultural Society. He photographed his lilies while my mother sketched his lilies and other subjects in pastel and watercolour. When I married Carole Lindsay in 1971, I found in her a consummate gardener, so that today the garden is filled with flowers, trees, shrubs and berries.

In the summer of 1995 at Metis Beach, at 7:30AM, Carole called from the sun room to say that there was a large dog in the front garden. I went out on the verandah to look. It was a moose on the loose. I learned from local gossip that the moose had been found a few weeks earlier wandering around the beach. Apparently the summer heat and the clouds of mosquitoes inland had proved too much for the beast to bear. The last time that a moose has turned up in Metis Beach was in 1923, when a local villager had shot it from his motor boat and harvested enough meat to feed the family for the winter. Mi'kmaq Indians claim that, ounce for ounce; moose meat carries one further on the trail than any other meat.


II-253798
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Mme William de M. Marler, Montréal, QC, 1923
Wm. Notman & Son
1923, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
17.8 x 12.7 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-253798
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Granny lived in a house at 288 Peel Street near Sherbrooke Street in Montreal. Granny also lived at Metis Beach in the summer, renting a house that belonged to the Astle family opposite the Seaside Hotel. She would happily entertain hotel visitors as guests for coffee and cake at eleven o'clock in the morning. It was Granny who taught us children how to play mahjung with its ivory and bamboo tiles filled with Chinese characters.


M930.50.3.3
© Musée McCord
Gravure
Rochers de la Boule et Cow, devant Métis-sur-Mer, Bas-Saint-Laurent, QC
John Henry Walker (1831-1899)
1850-1885, 19e siècle
Encre sur papier - Gravure sur bois
10.9 x 16 cm
Don de Mr. David Ross McCord
M930.50.3.3
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In the late 1940s, we used to row a small boat out to Boule Rock to explore. The rock itself is full of crevices attractive to seagulls for nesting. It is covered with tufts of salt tolerant grasses. With its sister, Cow rock, Boule Rock presents a geological mystery as to its origin and composition. In mid August, hardy bathers wade out from the shore, a distance of an eighth of a mile, provided that they do not stay long for fear of an incoming tide. It is a favorite subject for artists in Metis.


VIEW-3038.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Chute et étang à truites, Métis-sur-Mer, QC, vers 1900
Wm. Notman & Son
Vers 1900, 19e siècle ou 20e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur papier - Papier albuminé
22 x 18 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-3038.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

There were streams in the hills which as children we could reach by bicycle and fish for trout. We were in effect preparing for trips in the car to the lakes for serious fly fishing.


05441
Photograph
Fleet's Lake, 3rd Range Road, Saint Octave de Metis, QC
1938
05441

Commentaires:

One day, my father took us into the back hills to go fly fishing for trout. On the 3rd range road, there was a fresh water lake, called Fleet's Lake. Janie Fleet, a summer resident leased the lake from its owners. The guardian of the lake was Aimé Béland. His father had come from France in the 1870s and acquired a strip of farmland about 316 square arpents (circa 300 acres or 120 hectares). Aimé had high cheek bones, and was a true son of the soil. He would guide us to the canoes. We were equipped by my father with fly fishing rods, reels and cat gut leaders with Parmacheenie Belle and Silver Doctor trout flies.

The lake was a mile long and half a mile wide. It was ringed by spruce trees and marshes with tall reeds and lily pads. Few fish would rise until dusk, when suddenly there were many, and we would all catch a few. Then we would paddle back to the tiny wharf at the shore where Aime lit the oil lamps and the naphtha lamps in the log cabin and prepared to fry the trout. The wall of the cabin was decorated with posters from a much earlier era. After dinner, we wended our way home in the car, enjoying the huge dips in the Red Hill Road that took us back to Metis. Many years later, I met one of Aime's granddaughters at a roadside stand and learned that she was an accomplished flutist. When I returned to school, I wrote an essay about Aimé Béland whom I idolized.


MP-0000.1452.141
© Musée McCord
Photographie
À Petit-Métis, QC, vers 1875
Alexander Henderson
Vers 1875, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur carton - Papier albuminé
16 x 21 cm
Don de Miss E. Dorothy Benson
MP-0000.1452.141
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

My favorite destination since childhood was the beach. The estuary of the Saint Lawrence River begins at Tadoussac and widens to a distance of some 32 miles at Metis Beach. Metis is shielded by a number of hidden reefs, upon which so many ships were wrecked during the 19th century. As a child of four, our nanny would take us to the beach to play, building dams with round rocks in the three rushing streams that stemmed from the Cascade Falls. There was a cave which we called 'Mossy Banks' where, in our teens, we smoked beach punk, the thick dried stems of beach grasses laundered in the salt water.

I walked down to the beach
Clinging to sheaves of grass,
Slipping down the steep slope,
Past wild white anenomes
To the sand and the shells,
And the scent of the sea.

Past three streams I strode,
Over driftwood shapes and logs.
Past erratic rocks from glaciers past,
When giant bears and mastodons,
Roamed the fresh green valleys
.
In the sand, the glint of sea glass:
Green glass from ginger ale,
Blue glass from magnesia,
White glass from soda,
Brown glass from beer,
Bottles fractured by the waves,
Polished by the sands of time.

This beach is a magic place,
Faces the horizon miles away,
Brushed by clouds and fog.
Across the sea lie many things:
Some unknown and unexplored,
Some known and much desired.


VIEW-8095
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Sur le terrain de golf, Métis-sur-Mer, QC, 1915 (?)
Wm. Notman & Son
Probablement 1915, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
10 x 12 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-8095
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Mr. McNider owned the Cascade Hotel. Mr. McNider built the first hole of a golf course across the street (now Beach Road) from his hotel. Buttercup cottage served initially as the clubhouse. By 1908, an entire golf course had been completed and incorporated as the Cascade Golf and Tennis Club. The Club soon dominated every aspect of the social life of Metis Beach.

Over the century there were a number of great golfers, both men and women. Their names are inscribed on sliver trophies and wooden shields and boards that line the clubhouse.

Sources:

Enchaniting Metis by Samuel Mathewson Baylis, Montreal, September 1928

http://www.heritagelowerstlawrence.ca/pdf/Enchanting_Metis.pdf.


VIEW-5225
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Courts de tennis, Cascade Golf and Tennis Club, Métis-sur-Mer, QC, vers 1914
Wm. Notman & Son
Vers 1914, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-5225
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

The 8 tennis courts attracted talent from the summer community. The finals of the singles would always draw a crowd with formal referees in the chair. The annual dinner dances drew a veritable crowd of elegant ladies and gentlemen.


VIEW-3411.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Chutes de Grand-Métis, QC, 1901
Wm. Notman & Son
1901, 20e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur papier - Papier albuminé
24 x 19 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-3411.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

Electricity was introduced to Metis Beach in 1929, when Jules Brlllant, an entrepreneur, built a hydroelectric power station at the Metis Falls in Grand Metis. Grand Metis was known for the Metis River, and the Metis Falls, which stemmed from the Metis Lakes, some 40 miles to the interior. Grand Metis was also the site of Lord Mount Stephen's (1829-1921) salmon lodge, where his niece, Elsie Reford (1872-1967) and her husband spent the summers during the first half of the 20th century. It is there that Mrs. Reford devoted herself to gardening.


4449
Cet artefact appartient au : © Musée du Nouveau-Brunswick
Stéréogramme
Pêche au saumon
John Saunders Climo (1833-1924)
Vers 1875, 19e siècle
8.7 x 17.6 cm
Don de Mary Caroline Ellis Estate
4449
Cet artefact appartient au : © Musée du Nouveau-Brunswick

Clefs de l'histoire:

Les officiers de l'armée impériale et les représentants du gouvernement ont importé au Nouveau-Brunswick la tradition britannique des sports au grand air comme la pêche récréative. De riches pêcheurs à la ligne de Grande-Bretagne et, de plus en plus, des États-Unis, s'établissent le long des rivières à saumon dans le nord du Nouveau-Brunswick. À cette époque, les rivières à saumon de la côte est américaine commencent à dépérir, victimes de la pollution et de la construction de barrages. Attirés par les chroniqueurs touristiques des États-Unis et, plus tard, du Canada, de prospères Américains comme l'architecte new-yorkais Stanford White profitent des améliorations apportées au réseau ferroviaire pour quitter en grand nombre les secteurs bondés du nord-est durant les années 1870 et 1880. Les plus riches d'entre eux fondent des clubs sportifs fermés, notamment sur les deux rives de la Restigouche, reconnue pour son gros saumon et pour son accès aisé qu'assurent des chalands et des caravanes flottantes tirés par des chevaux.

Les camps de pêche sur la rivière Restigouche sont une version rustique des clubs sélects de Manhattan. À l'origine, ils comprennent une pièce centrale octogonale qui abrite les espaces de restauration et d'habitation, ainsi que les ailes des chambres, des salles de bain et des services.

Source : circuit web 'Une fenêtre sur le monde : Les rivières du Nouveau-Brunswick' de Musée du Nouveau-Brunswick (Voir sous l'onglet Liens)

Quoi:

L'équipement d'un pêcheur de ligne comprend une canne à pêche et un moulinet ainsi qu'une sélection de mouches confectionnées à la main pour appâter le saumon.

Où:

Le photographe John Saunders Climo (1833-1924) est né à Penzance, en Cornouailles (Angleterre), et il est mort à Saint John, au Nouveau-Brunswick.

Quand:

En 1884, le gouvernement du Nouveau-Brunswick adopte une loi qui vise à concéder aux enchères des baux sur les eaux de pêche de choix situées sur des terres de la Couronne non concédées.

Qui:

Les guides utilisent leur connaissance des rivières et des comportements des poissons pour diriger les pêcheurs vers des emplacements de choix le long du cours d'eau.

MP-0000.1452.157
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Cabane en bois rond, rivière Tartigou, près de Métis, QC, 1871-1872
Alexander Henderson
1872, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur papier - Papier albuminé
16 x 21 cm
MP-0000.1452.157
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In 1941, my father and mother took us children to the covered bridge (Pont Belanger) constructed in 1925 at the junction of the Tartigou Stream and the McNider Road. The covered bridge had a tin roof. The walls were made with wide boards as also the floor of the bridge. It was well adapted to horses and trucks, whether in winter or in summer. Below the bridge, the stream was about 20 feet wide and the water was about 5 feet deep, ideal for swimming. As children, we wore life preservers in order to minimize the risk of drowning. The bottom of the stream was covered with pebbles rounded by centuries of flowing water. Baby trout lined the banks of the stream further down. And there the water had been damned up with rocks to create an even deeper swimming hole for adults. The Tartigou was a favorite spot for years to come. It was ideal for picnics, popular pastimes in the 1920s and 1930s. As we grew older, we explored the surrounding hills and discovered alarming precipices dropping abruptly a few hundred feet into oblivion. Elsewhere, nearby, there were collections of lady's slippers blooming in the early summer.


MP-1983.99.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Station de radio amateur NC2BN, Montréal, QC, 1915
Anonyme - Anonymous
1915, 20e siècle
Gélatine argentique
11 x 16 cm
Don de Mr. Martin Pflug
MP-1983.99.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In the summer of 1948 at Metis Beach, I decided to build and operate a radio-amateur receiver and transmitter on the 20 meter band. I climbed a 70 foot spruce tree with a telephone pole climber's belt, hammering large nails into the tree every few feet to provide for ease of climbing. With a white porcelain insulator screwed into the side of the tree, I fashioned a 300 foot copper wire antenna, linking the spruce in the woods behind the Metis house to another comparable spruce at the front of the property. I had previously attached a 300 ohm cable at an integral fraction of the 20 meter wave length. In turn this was connected to a 5 watt output short wave transmitter.

The receiver was an army surplus short wave receiver of consummate sophistication. I obtained the amateur call letters - VE2KW - by examination from the Federal Department of Transport. The result was a glorious summer of communication with fellow amateur radio operators in Canada, the U.S. and abroad.

One rainy afternoon, I heard a faint signal and responded CQCQ de VE2KW. It proved to be Kontiki somewhere in the Pacific. Months later, I received a QSL card, the radio amateur's term for acknowledging the interaction. On other occasions, I reached the North Eastern United States with ease, and countries as distant as Australia, Germany, and Argentina. All communication was in Morse code. I had long observed Mr. Tom Chadsey, years earlier, at the Cascade Hotel sending and receiving messages in Morse code. My telegraph key was made of brass with silver contacts. I also acquired a semi-automatic key nicknamed a bug which stepped up the speed of composing messages from about 20 words a minute to about 30 words a minute, with considerable relief for the wrist. I would emerge after hours of concentration, yet few members of the family or community had the slightest inkling of the joys of communicating with the outside world.

When I returned to Montreal, I was able to step up to the maximum allowed 500 watt power of transmission. My much admired older cousin, Roger Hutchins, helped me to install an army surplus vertical telescopic copper antenna. This was linked by means of 300 ohm cable to the transmitter. The transmitter had a final Radio Frequency (RF) coil voltage of 3000 volts. My cousin had a black belt in judo and was wont to touch a pencil to the RF coil and induce a sizeable electric spark. He also introduced me to the 20,000 volt Ford ignition coil. This produced sparks akin to those of a Tessla coil.

Clefs de l'histoire:

C'est avec la radio que les médias de masse prennent véritablement toute leur ampleur. Dès les premiers essais du physicien italien Marconi, qui réussit la première communication transatlantique en 1901, la radio s'impose comme un passe-temps pour idéalistes qui voient dans ce fantastique moyen de communication la promesse d'un monde meilleur. L'usage militaire que l'on en fait lors de la Première Guerre mondiale montre à l'évidence les limites de cet idéal. Néanmoins, comme pour la photographie, de nombreux amateurs veulent développer la technologie de Marconi. La création, à partir des années 1910, d'associations de radioamateurs est l'expression de cet engouement pour les nouvelles technologies.

Quoi:

À l'instar de la photographie qui rapproche les frontières en révélant l'image de paysages inconnus ou de personnes étrangères, la radio contribue à réduire les distances entre les individus.

Où:

Au Canada, l'utilisation du spectre radioélectrique pour transmettre des ondes radio dans le but d'établir des liens de communication est régi par la Loi canadienne sur la radiocommunication.

Quand:

La première station canadienne de télégraphie sans fil (TSF) est inaugurée en 1902 à Glace Bay (N.-É.). La radiodiffusion au Canada connaît cependant son véritable essor avec la création, en 1936, de la Société Radio-Canada.

Qui:

Dès l'âge de dix ans, Guglielmo Marconi, l'un des inventeurs de la radio, se livre à des expériences sur les phénomènes électriques. Il apprend très tôt le code télégraphique inventé par l'Américain Samuel Morse, pionnier de la photographie par ailleurs.

MP-1980.32.1.233
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Enfants de la campagne portant des vêtements rapiécés, Saint-Antoine, péninsule de la Gaspésie, QC, vers 1930
Anonyme - Anonymous
Vers 1930, 20e siècle
Gélatine argentique
6 x 8 cm
Don de Mrs. Charles W. Wagner
MP-1980.32.1.233
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

The roots of poverty in families living on farms in the hills south of Metis Beach lie in the allocation of uneconomic lots of land to colonists during the 19th century under the Seigneurial system. A colonist arriving from France would acquire a lot typically measuring 3 by 40 arpents. An arpent measured 191.835 feet. The area corresponding to 3 by 40 arpents was approximately 101 acres. A typical farm consisted of 50% woodland, 30% rocky soil and 20% hilly pasture. Crops other than wood (birch, maple, spruce, poplar, cedar) were oats, wheat, corn, barley, hay, potatoes and vegetables, complemented by livestock (meat and dairy cows, sheep, pigs, and chickens), supplemented by seasonal berries such as wild strawberries, raspberries and blueberries. Prior to rural electrification in the 1940s a family might have 15 children. A girl of eighteen was deemed more marriageable if her teeth were extracted in the fall, and dentures worn in the spring. Girl's names were from a church approved list which linked the date of birth to the name of one or more Saints. A caleche was used to transport the mother and father to church on Sunday. Roads were unpaved. With the advent of cars during the 20th century, clouds of dust would fill the air. Paving of roads followed the vagaries of adherence to political parties in power. Winters were harsh with more than 120 inches of snowfall. Heat was provided by burning wood in a wood stove. Cedar was used as kindling and birch to maintain the fire. The growing season was no more than 100 days in length from June to mid September, so that many a time the apples stayed green and never ripened. The older sons of the family would emigrate in the fall to jobs at lumber camps, returning in the spring with limited cash savings. As late as the 1940s, if we drove into the hills, children would wave and marvel at the unfamiliar sight of a passing car. The smell of manure welcomed any returning member of the family. Clothes were handed down from older to younger children, so that patched clothes were a hallmark of rural life. .

Clefs de l'histoire:

Au Centre et dans l'Est du Canada, beaucoup de fermes sont installées sur des terres peu propices à l'agriculture. Au Québec, la péninsule gaspésienne en offre de nombreux exemples : ainsi, des fermes sont établies sur le Bouclier canadien ou non loin de son extrémité. La majorité des cultivateurs sont endettés et la pauvreté fait partie intégrante de la vie quotidienne à la ferme.

Les paysans portent leurs vêtements jusqu'à ce qu'ils tombent en lambeaux et utilisent rarement leurs chaussures durant les mois d'été. Leur état de santé est compromis par la carence en vitamines et en minéraux de leur régime alimentaire. Il leur est difficile d'obtenir de bons soins médicaux.

Durant des décennies, les gouvernements québécois ne voient pas la nécessité d'aider les fermiers. Cette situation change après l'arrivée au pouvoir en 1936 de l'Union nationale (UN), dirigé par Maurice Duplessis (1890-1959). Élue grâce à un programme axé sur une réforme industrielle, financière et agraire, l'UN manquera à beaucoup des promesses qu'elle avait faites, mais elle augmentera l'aide aux cultivateurs.

Quoi:

Durant la Crise, des centaines de milliers de familles agricoles canadiennes n'ont toujours pas l'électricité.

Où:

La péninsule gaspésienne se trouve dans l'Est du Québec, sur la rive sud du golfe du Saint-Laurent. Saint-Antoine est une petite communauté située dans cette région.

Quand:

Cette photographie a été prise en 1930, au tout début de la Crise, ce qui dénote que ces enfants vivent dans l'indigence depuis déjà longtemps.

Qui:

Dans son roman Trente Arpents paru en 1938, Philippe Panneton (1895-1960), de son nom de plume « Ringuet », livre un témoignage stoïque de la vie rurale québécoise des années 1890 jusqu'à la Crise.

4047
Cet artefact appartient au : © Musée du Nouveau-Brunswick
Boîte
Vers 1875, 19e siècle
14.7 x 21.3 x 21.5 cm
Don de Miss Roche
4047
Cet artefact appartient au : © Musée du Nouveau-Brunswick

Clefs de l'histoire:

La première nation micmaque vit sur la côte est du Nouveau-Brunswick et possède une langue et une culture distinctes de celles des Wolastoqiyik. Traditionnellement, les Micmacs pêchent au printemps, durant l'été et au début de l'automne, le long des zones des marées. Pendant la saison froide, ils se replient à l'intérieur des terres pour chasser du gros gibier comme l'orignal et le caribou.

Les canots en écorce de bouleau et les routes de portage familières permettent une communication rapide le long des réseaux fluviaux pendant la majeure partie de l'année. Ces échanges unissent les Micmacs à leur vaste territoire. Cette préservation de l'état naturel de leur territoire contribuera à les distinguer culturellement des Wolastoqiyik.



À la fin du XIXe siècle, les Micmacs produisent des objets décoratifs traditionnels qu'ils vendent ou troquent, comme cette boîte en piquants de porc-épic.

Quoi:

Les piquants utilisés proviennent du porc-épic d'Amérique, dont le corps est recouvert de 20 000 à 30 000 aiguilles.

Où:

Traditionnellement, les Micmacs extraient les teintures employées pour les piquants de sources naturelles comme des écorces ou des plantes.

Quand:

Une fois retirés, les piquants du porc-épic sont nettoyés, teints puis triés selon leur grandeur.

Qui:

Certaines techniques telles que la décoration de piquants de porc-épic sont transmises de génération en génération par les parents et les grands-parents qui les enseignent aux enfants.

1970.127
Cet artefact appartient au : © Musée du Nouveau-Brunswick
Canöe
Solomon Family Member
Vers 1900, 20e siècle
33 x 87.6 x 519.4 cm
Achat de Aubrey Donnelly
1970.127
Cet artefact appartient au : © Musée du Nouveau-Brunswick

Clefs de l'histoire:

Installés dans cette région depuis les tout débuts, les Wolastoqiyik, ou Malécites, ont toujours entretenu un lien physique, intellectuel et spirituel avec la Wolastoq. La rivière, ses affluents, ses terres et ses forêts leur fournissent nourriture, matériaux et produits médicinaux en abondance. Les Wolastoqiyik s'établissent à proximité de la rivière, là où ils peuvent trouver aisément des ressources en nourriture et en transport. Certains vivent même sur la rivière durant la belle saison. Durant le printemps, l'été et l'automne, ils parcourent la rivière sur toute sa longueur, utilisant son tracé comme une carte et empruntant des routes de portage qui leur donnent accès à d'autres voies d'eau. Sur les berges de la rivière, ils s'approvisionnent en poisson, crosses de fougère et gibier. Le transport par rivière resserre les liens entre les populations et permet d'entrer en contact avec les nations avoisinantes sur la côte nord-américaine. À la fois léger et facile à manoeuvrer, le canot en écorce de bouleau est un produit de première nécessité pour ce mode de vie.

De fabrication traditionnelle, ce canot en écorce de cèdre et de bouleau date des années 1900.

Source : circuit web 'Une fenêtre sur le monde : Les rivières du Nouveau-Brunswick' de Musée du Nouveau-Brunswick (Voir sous l'onglet Liens)

Quoi:

Les canots malécites se distinguent par la présence de rabats en écorce de bouleau, placés à l'avant et à l'arrière de l'embarcation.

Où:

En eau peu profonde, on utilise parfois des perches au lieu de pagaies pour faire avancer le canot.

Quand:

Le dernier canot en écorce de bouleau a été construit en 1920. À partir de cette date, la toile remplace désormais l'écorce traditionnelle.

Qui:

Ce canot a été construit par un membre de la famille Solomon de Kingsclear.

MP-0000.1452.133
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Canot et camp mi'kmaq, Matapédia, QC, vers 1865
Alexander Henderson
Vers 1865, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur carton - Papier albuminé
11 x 19.2 cm
Don de Miss E. Dorothy Benson
MP-0000.1452.133
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

The Mi'kmaq lived at Restigouche (Listuguj). In early summer, Mi'kmaq travelled by canoe up the Restigouche River to the Patapedia East River to the Metis Lakes to the Metis River and the Metis Falls near Grand Metis. There, they portaged along a path down a steep incline to where the Metis River meets the estuary of the Saint Lawrence River. They fished for salmon and traded artifacts and ideas with other tribes such as the Montagnais from the North Shore. During the first half of the 20th century, they made articles from birch bark such as baskets for carrying firewood, or round mats sewn with sweet hay and embroidered with beads. They would sell these articles, door to door, to summer residents of Metis Beach, sometimes camping overnight in lean-tos (anapigann) erected on a vacant lot on the Metis station road.

In 2005, archeologists discovered remnants of a Paleoindian fire pit with arrowheads on the banks of the Metis River just north of Price. These artifacts date from 8,000 years B.C.E.

Sources:

A Preliminary Annotated Chronology and Bibliography of the Seigneury de Peiras or Mitis relating to the Aboriginal Prehistoric to Contemporary Presence by Gilbert R. Bossé, Eric Marler, M.D., et al.

http://autochtone.bravehost.com/bibliography/index.html


II-214802
© Musée McCord
Photographie
La Selwyn House School, photographiée pour M. McCaulay, Montréal, QC, 1916
Wm. Notman & Son
1916, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-214802
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

I began my school life at the age of 5 in September 1938. The school was Selwyn House School, located on Redpath Street, ten minutes' walk from our house on McGregor Street (Dr. Penfield Avenue). Selwyn House School was a delight. The class had 14 students, all boys. It was a private school. The masters and mistresses were often English or Scottish born. The headmaster was Geoffrey H. Torrens Wanstall. Teachers were Miss Snead, Miss Kinnear, Mme.Giguere, Mr. and Mrs. Howis, Mr. Cyril Jackson, Mr. Gilson, Patrick Anderson (later famous as a Canadian poet), Mr. F. Gordon Phillips. Mr. Phillips was in charge of sports, soccer in the fall, hockey and cross country skiing in winter, and cricket in the spring. I played left inside at soccer; center forward in hockey, raced downhill and cross country in skiing, and as a medium-paced, off break, bowler at cricket. F. Gordon Phillips used to transport us to the playing field in the rumble seat of his 1936 navy blue Ford Car. Many years later, he achieved prominence in Montréal as an organist and composer of church organ music.

There were 20 minute breaks every mid-morning. We were let out in the schoolyard. The yard was the size of a hockey rink. A favorite pursuit consisted of threading a horse chestnut on a string, and banging it against the opponent's chestnut until one or the other broke in pieces. Another favorite pursuit was fighting, either wrestling or fist fighting, out of the watchful eyes of teachers.

The school colours were yellow and black. There was a prize giving at the end of May, each year, and on these occasions, there would be various races and athletic contests, followed by presentation of medals and awards. Some of Montreal's finest gentlemen were members of the Board of Directors. I especially remember Hon. G. Miller Hyde.


N-0000.193.10.1
© Musée McCord
Photographie
McGill College, rue Sherbrooke, Montréal, QC, vers 1859
William Notman (1826-1891)
Vers 1859, 19e siècle
Sels d'argent sur papier monté sur carton - Papier albuminé
7.3 x 7 cm
Don de Mr. James Geoffrey Notman
N-0000.193.10.1
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

I completed school at Selwyn House School (1938-1947), and went on to Lower Canada College for 11th and 12th grade studies (1947-1949). In September 1949, I was admitted to the 2nd year of the Bachelor of Arts Degree at McGill University with Honours in Philosophy. My principal Professor was R.D. Maclennan. Other Professors of Philosophy included Raymond Klibansky (1905-2005), Alastair MacKinnon, Antonio D'Andrea, and Guido Calogero, visiting from Milan, Italy. The principal of McGill University was Frank Cyril James (1903-2000). Zbigniew Brzezinski was a young graduate student at McGill University.

The Philosophy Department at McGill University, 1949 through 1954, was an oasis of learning. R Diarmid MacLennan was the Department Chairman. He was born at Inverinate by Kyle of Lochalsh near Kintail, Ross-shire, on the West Coast of Scotland. His family had been there for nine centuries. He married Anita Colby of Montreal. He was a man of tremendous kindness and spirituality. He was imbued with knowledge of the 19th century philosophers, especially Kant, Hegel, Locke, Hume, A.N. Whitehead, Bertrand Russell, Bradley, as well as the ancient Greek philosophers, Aristotle and Plato.

Classes were generally small. On occasion he would invite me for tea or dinner. He lived at 631 Grosvenor Avenue, Westmount. His favorite dinner was roast lamb, mashed potatoes, boiled peas, and apple pie, washed down with triple malt whisky. He was still linked to philosophers at Edinburgh University, such as Norman Kemp Smith and to modern philosophers such as Angus Sinclair. In 1953, Prof. Maclennan gave the Gifford lectures. Later he told me that his lectures were so obscure that they never reached publication. In 1954, he retired from McGill University to live at Kintail, attended by a faithful housekeeper who spoke only Gaelic. He took up the mantle of the Presbyterian ministry until his subsequent death.

Raymond Klibansky was born in Lithuania in the early years of the 20th century, Klibansky was an extraordinary scholar. He was completely at home in at least 7 languages, including English, Latin, Ancient Greek, Arabic, French, German, and Polish. When lecturing, he would place multiple texts behind a large green linen covered folder, and, translating from his sources, produce a stream of insights. Often the subject was medieval philosophy.

Another Professor was Alastair Mackinnon who introduced us to the complexity of Soren Kierkegaard for which he is still famous.

One of my favorite books was Principia Mathematica by Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) and Bertrand Russell (1872-1970). This interest took me to the University of Montreal where I attended several lectures by the mathematician Maurice L'Abbe. Another interest was in the 'Trattado de la Oracion" by Saint Teresa. This took me to the Institut d'Etudes Medievales to attend lectures by Dominican fathers.

In May 1952, I graduated from McGill University with 1st class Honours in Philosophy and the Prince of Wales Gold Medal. In September 1952, I launched a study of the origins of the "Due Nuove Scieince" of Galileo Galilei (1564-1642). I read the "Corrispondenza di Galileo Galilei" published by Antonio Favaro, Firenze, 1895 in 20 Volumes. The letters were largely written in Latin with stretches in Italian. In the course of a year, I found a series of 8 geometric theorems mentioned by Galileo in his letters. Turning to the late Greek geometers, I translated the proofs of these theorems from Greek into English, and pieced the proofs together so as to lead logically from the mechanics of Archimedes, the subject of lectures by Galileo in his youth, to the Dynamics of Falling Bodies. Galileo's father had been a musician who traded pieces of music in a similar fashion with his musical colleagues. During the summer of 1953 at the Yale University Library, I discovered a rare book entitled "De Motu Corpora Gravidarum" by "Hieronymus Borro" written in the year 1553, 50 years before Galileo had started his career as a University lecturer. In this rare book, I found a description of the famous Tower of Pisa experiment, attributed in error to Galileo, describing how heavy bodies fell at the same speed as lighter bodies without regard to their weight. From this, I concluded that Galileo had not turned to empirical experiments prior to his later discovery of the telescope. The thesis entitled "Mathematics and Matter in Motioin; the Due Nuove Scienze of Galileo Galilei" earned me the degree of Master of Arts, magna cum laude in May 1954. Much useful guidance was received from Prof. Antonio D'Andrea of the Department of Italian Studies.

I made a decision to veer away from philosophy. In September 1954, I enrolled in the Faculty of Medicine. There were courses in Anatomy, Embryology, Physiology, Biochemistry, Histology, and other subjects. I graduated in June 1958 with the degree of M.D., C.M.

Description:

En 1860, l'intersection des rues Sherbrooke et McGill College est beaucoup moins animée qu'elle ne l'est aujourd'hui. En fait, la rue Sherbrooke revêt encore un certain caractère rural, avec les fermes et les vergers qui s'y trouvent.

Le campus du McGill College ne compte alors que deux bâtiments, le pavillon des Arts et son aile Est. Sir William Dawson, qui est nommé recteur de l'institution en 1855, affirme que le campus n'a pas très fière allure à son arrivée. Les bâtiments tombent en ruines, le campus sert de pâturage au bétail des fermes avoisinantes et les chemins qui y mènent sont souvent impraticables.

Cependant, en 1860, les environs du McGill College sont à l'aube de se muer en chic quartier résidentiel, le Mille carré doré, dont la rue Sherbrooke sera l'artère principale. Cette même année, des ouvriers qui creusent aux limites sud du campus de McGill pour la construction de nouvelles résidences découvrent des artefacts et des fossiles. Averti de cette découverte, Dawson organisera l'un des premiers sauvetages archéologiques du Canada en convainquant l'entrepreneur, un certain Edmond Dorion, de faire don des artefacts et des fossiles trouvés par ses ouvriers à la Natural History Society of Montreal.


MP-0000.25.257
© Musée McCord
Photographie, diapositive sur verre
Pavillon Strathcona de médecine, Université McGill, Montréal, QC, vers 1925
Sydney Jack Hayward
Vers 1925, 20e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
8 x 10 cm
Don de Mr. Stanley G. Triggs
MP-0000.25.257
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

Vers 1900, Lord Strathcona (Donald Smith) est reconnu comme l'un des grands philanthropes du Canada. En plus d'assumer les coûts d'un régiment canadien dépêché en Afrique du Sud, il se montre très généreux à l'égard de l'Université McGill à Montréal. En 1907, le pavillon de médecine de l'université est détruit par un incendie, et Strathcona se porte immédiatement volontaire pour acheter un terrain en face de l'Hôpital Royal Victoria afin d'y faire construire un nouveau pavillon, entièrement à ses frais. C'est ainsi qu'un bel et sobre édifice verra le jour. Au fil des années, le pavillon sera bonifié d'un vitrail à la mémoire des étudiants ayant péri durant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, ainsi que de la bibliothèque Sir William Osler, nommée en l'honneur d'un des plus célèbres médecins du Canada. Le Pavillon Strathcona de médecine , aujourd'hui désigné sous le nom de Pavillon Strathcona d'anatomie et de médecine dentaire, est toujours utilisé par les étudiants en médecine de McGill.

Quoi:

Le Pavillon Strathcona de médecine, construit dans le style moderne des bâtiments universitaires du début du 20e siècle, fut nommé ainsi en l'honneur du célèbre Canadien d'origine écossaise Lord Strathcona (Donald A. Smith).

Où:

Construit en 1872 pour abriter la faculté de médecine, ce bâtiment est ravagé par les flammes en 1907. Il sera reconstruit en 1908 sur un terrain situé à l'angle de l'avenue des Pins et de la rue University par les architectes David Brown et Hugh Vallence.

Quand:

Une aile du bâtiment de 1872 fait toujours partie de l'Université McGill. La plus grande partie du bâtiment d'origine a été détruite par un incendie en 1907.

Qui:

Lord Strathcona a donné l'argent nécessaire à la construction de ce bâtiment lorsque l'ancien fut détruit par un incendie.

05501
Map
United Kingdom
05501

Commentaires:

In June 1954, I went on a study trip to Europe organized by the World University Service of Canada. 2 years prior, Pierre Elliott Trudeau, later Prime Minister of Canada, had done likewise. One of my tour companions was Tom Delworth, later Canadian Ambassador to Germany. The ship was the Castel Felice of Sitmar Lines. We embarked at the port of Montreal and traversed the Atlantic in 5 days, arriving at Southampton, and on to Bremerhaven. As a group of 8 students, we rented a Volkswagen bus and drove southward through West Germany, stopping at each principal city. I especially remember the Volkswagen factory, witnessing the high level of organization that typified West Germany's Wiederaufbau or economic recovery. I read a book entitled "Maenner, Maechte und Monopole" on the recrudescence of cartels in West Germany's postwar coal and steel industry. I also remember the beauty of Blau Beuren, a lake in the Schwarzwald (Black Forest) near Ulm and Stuttgart.

By the middle of August, we had returned to London, where by chance I met Donald P. Chesworth (1923-1991), a member of the London County Council and an executive assistant to Prime Minister Clement Atless just after the war. In turn, Chesworth introduced me to Mrs. Marcus Garvey, the wife of Marcus Garvey, the famous leader of the Back to Africa Movement which he led in Harlem, New York, in the late 1920s. One of Chesworth's colleagues was Joseph Morumbe, who with Jomo Kenyatta (1889-1978) and others, played a role in the formation of a new and independent Kenyan Government. Kenyatta himself had been a student in London off and on in the 1930s, and an occasional guest for high tea at the flat of the Reverend and Mrs. Donald, an English couple who used to spend occasional summers at Metis Beach, Quebec. Later, Donald P. Chesworth (1923-1991) served as warden of Toynbee Hall and as an advisor to the Governor of Mauritius.

From London, we went north to a girl's school, Crofton Grange, at Buntingsford, Hertfordshire for a seminar on West Africa. The girls of Crofton Grange were away on summer holidays. At the seminar, there were various African speakers. African political leaders were evolving new constitutions aimed at independence. Several Russian students attended the seminar along with a young journalist, Anatoly Glinkin, from Komsolmova Pravda. The Russians loved to entertain their fellow students, singing Russian songs around the piano, and offering vodka and caviar. The most intriguing invited speaker spoke in Sandawe, a click language from North Central Tanzania. After a fascinating fortnight, I returned by air to Montreal, arriving in time to enter the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University.


05503
Map
Jamaica
05503

Commentaires:

In July 1955, thanks to an invitation from my college roommate, David Hopwood, I spent the summer in Jamaica. Initially I stayed with his family at their house in Halfway Tree. The cuisine was a source of unending fascination: acki and salt cod, green curried goat; plantain and breadfruit as staple starchy vegetables; avocados of exquisite flavor and texture; fresh coconut water; fresh fish. There were servants from the interior of Jamaica. One of them, Isilda by name, was subjected to an Obeah charm when she discovered a glass bottle containing the skeleton of a frog along with some herbs and essence of engage.

I was introduced to the former Lieutenant Governor of St. Lucia, Fred de Gazon, Deputy to the Minister of Education, (Dr. Lloyd). I was also friends with Marlene Davis, the daughter of the Hon. Carl Noel, Minister of Health in Grenada. Marlene was a student in Halifax, Canada and already famous as a lyric soprano. One evening, we went to a calypso party given by Mr. Charles, Chief Justice Elect of the Supreme Court of the West Indies. He played the piano, and his daughters provided vocal accompaniment. The music was classical for 20 minutes and then the music shifted to calypso.

After a few weeks, I moved to student quarters at the University of the West Indies. I managed breakfast at 6:00AM before the milk turned sour. Periodically I visited the Kingston Public Hospital Outpatient Clinic where I was able to observe medical care. There were a number of British clinicians still there. Jamaica had only recently become independent.

One day we all drove to the North Coast with Dr. Lloyd. There was a prize hen in the back seat, head tied to feet with a piece of string. At Falmouth on the North coast of Jamaica, the hen escaped the car, and all of us chased it until it was recaptured. We peeled off at Montego Bay, and had lunch at Doctor's Cave, a fine hotel, so that the Minister could proceed to a meeting of his constituents further north. The prize hen was given back to him by his henchman as a token of appreciation of his political service. On the way home, we stopped at Falmouth and met the Mayor of Montego Bay, Mr. Willie Vernon. We went to a Chinese restaurant at Falmouth and had a wonderful dinner on the top floor, reserved for important guests.

My roommate took me to Worthy Park in the parish of St. Catherine, a vast farm belonging to the father and uncle of David's fiancée, Andrea Clarke. The 90,000 acres contained a village of some 800 people. Carts loaded with sugar cane queued up for days to crush the cane at an ancient 19th century sugar mill. The brown sweet juice of the cane flowed in open wooden troughs to their next destination in the process of extraction and purification. The plantation included Ugli fruit and Zebu cattle bred for export to Ecuador. The mansion was baronial in size. The dining room table and sideboard were piled high with antique English silver. .

A special delight was the Blue Mountain Inn Restaurant on the Gordon Town Road, which rises from sea level to the 7,000 foot Blue Mountain Range. The Inn, once the headquarters of a coffee estate, had been converted to a restaurant. Outside there was an Angel's Trumpet tree. On the way home, I took in the scent of the flowers. It was said "Don't tie your donkey under the Angel's Trumpet tree." At the foot of the mountain, my pupils were fully dilated due to the atropine like action of the flower.

From a medical standpoint, I was fascinated by the skill of Jamaica's physicians. Lacking radiological and chemical laboratory facilities in the mid 1950s, clinical signs were used with confidence to steer surgeons into major operations. At the same time, there was widespread iron deficiency anemia from hookworm due to the scarcity of shoes. In the past half century, Jamaicans abroad have sent money and shoes home, and anemia from hookworm is much less prevalent.

In the clinic, a patient would be seen and treatment prescribed in the space of a few minutes. One day, a lady came and the doctor asked her "Wha' for you come?" She answered: "Doctor, it pain me in the belly in the morning. The evening come, the pain answer me on the other side." Yo' man lick you (beat you up)?" he asked. This question produced a broad smile and was perceived as a compliment. "No, doctor" she said. "Up on de table" he commanded. In no time she was given a prescription for penicillin and codeine along with a diagnosis of acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Jamaican physicians were called upon to cover the waterfront of human illness, delivering babies, performing appendectomies, treating pneumonia, and diabetes. There was no end to their courage and ingenuity. At the end of the summer, I returned to 2nd year medical school at McGill, armed with new insights.


M965.199.9140
© Musée McCord
Dessin, caricature
Saint Nikita et le dragon
John Collins
Vers 1960, 20e siècle
Encre et mine de plomb sur papier
37.3 x 29.3 cm
Don de Mr. John Collins - The Gazette
M965.199.9140
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In December 1956, I visited my parents at their house in Rockliffe and was invited to accompany my father to a reception given by the Indian High Commissioner in honour of the visit to Ottawa of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) and his daughter Indira Gandhi (1917-1984). While at Yale University, I had read much of Mahatma Gandhi's correspondence. Mr. Nehru had visited Nikita Khrushchev the week before in Moscow. That was a few weeks after the Hungarian Revolution. The revolution was crushed by Soviet tanks. Mr. Nehru spent a few hours briefing the Canadian Cabinet On December 21-23. At the reception, I had the unparalleled opportunity to have 20 minutes of conversation with him. He said that the Hungarian Revolution was "untimely" as Khrushchev had only recently taken office and had not yet consolidated support from the Soviet military. I asked him about the President of Pakistan, Quaid I Azam Muhammed Ali Jinnah (1876-1948). Nehru was a very genteel human being and showed interest in these topics.


VIEW-11536
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Salle commune, hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, Montréal, QC, 1911
Wm. Notman & Son
1911, 20e siècle
Gélatine argentique
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
VIEW-11536
© Musée McCord

Clefs de l'histoire:

Les élites montréalaises prennent conscience des problèmes sociaux engendrés par l'urbanisation et l'industrialisation. Pendant longtemps, on s'était contenté d'y répondre par la charité envers les démunis. On réclame maintenant des réformes en profondeur. Les interventions les plus énergiques et les plus beaux succès du réformisme social ont lieu dans le domaine de la santé.

Il faut dire qu'à la fin du XIXe siècle, Montréal reste sur ce plan une ville dangereuse. Le taux de mortalité, en particulier la mortalité infantile, y est élevé, et plus d'un enfant sur quatre meurt avant d'atteindre l'âge de un an. La situation est plus grave chez les Canadiens français que parmi les autres groupes. Les médecins intensifient leur campagne en faveur de l'hygiène publique, avec l'appui d'hommes d'affaires ainsi que de femmes associées aux mouvements féministes et aux organismes de charité. Leur plus éminent porte-parole est le docteur Emmanuel-Persillier Lachapelle.

Quoi:

L'Hôtel-Dieu, fondé par Jeanne Mance, est le plus ancien hôpital de Montréal. Il est dirigé par une communauté religieuse, les Hospitalières de Saint-Joseph. En 1911, la majorité des malades est encore hébergée dans de grandes salles communes, comme celle qui apparaît sur la photographie.

Où:

Situé pendant plus de deux siècles dans le Vieux-Montréal, l'Hôtel-Dieu s'installe en 1861 sur un vaste emplacement à l'angle de l'avenue des Pins et de la rue Saint-Urbain.

Quand:

En 1911, Montréal compte, en plus de l'Hôtel-Dieu, d'autres établissements de santé à vocation générale. On y trouve notamment les hôpitaux Montreal General (1819), Notre-Dame (1880), Royal Victoria (1887) et Western (1895), de même que plusieurs établissements spécialisés s'adressant à des clientèles spécifiques (maternité, enfance, maladie mentale, etc.).

Qui:

Emmanuel-Persillier Lachapelle (1845-1918) est professeur à la faculté de médecine de l'Université Laval, à Montréal, et l'un des fondateurs de l'hôpital Notre-Dame. Il est président du Conseil d'hygiène de la province de Québec de 1887 à 1918.

II-103637
© Musée McCord
Photographie
Salle commune, Hôpital Royal Victoria, Montréal, QC, 1894
Wm. Notman & Son
1894, 19e siècle
Plaque sèche à la gélatine
20 x 25 cm
Achat de l'Associated Screen News Ltd.
II-103637
© Musée McCord

Commentaires:

In June 1958, I took up a post in the Royal Victoria Hospital's resident staff as a Rotating Intern. Interns rotated through each major field, namely, Obstetrics and Gynecology; Surgery; and Internal Medicine. The pay was $40 per month. Lodging was provided as well as meals in the hospital cafeteria. Work occupied roughly 100 hours a week. On many a night, work would end at midnight, only to start up again at 2:00AM in the emergency room. Typically a patient with a bleeding ulcer required admission and prompt care.

Each intern was also on periodic ambulance duty. The ambulance was a vintage 16 cylinder Cadillac. The ambulance driver was named Frank. Frank was studying to become a mortician. He would drive with great skill at 3:00AM along icy streets to reach the site of an accident or a sick child. Frank had a consummate knowledge of the streets and the Montreal police. The police were usually already on the scene, helping to organize medical resources and reassure the relatives. I remember picking up a pathologically intoxicated Norwegian merchant mariner in the harbor. Visits to more than one hospital were required before finding a hospital, the Royal Victoria Hospital, willing to admit and care for the sailor. On another occasion, I climbed the steep iron staircase of a tenement to examine a baby. When I asked where the baby could be found, the mother pointed to the bottom bureau drawer where the baby was snugly installed. On another occasion, I was called to certify the death of an old man who had hung himself on his cupboard door. And yet again, I was called to certify the death of a murder victim whose throat had been cut and spurted spots of blood all over the wall. So cold were the winters that another victim was frozen to death without heat and was as stiff as the branches of a fallen tree.

In May 1959, I married Gisela Schwarz (1937 - ), a native of Berlin Lichterfelde, Germany. She was working as a hematology technician at the Royal Victoria Hospital. Later, she became a senior EEG technician at the Montreal General Hospital and the Montreal Children's Hospital. She was to become the mother of our 2 children, Jennifer Jane Marler (1961 - ) and Eric de Montmollijn Marler (1963 - ).


In June 1959, I entered my residency in the specialty of internal medicine. Monthly income rose to $100 a month. Hours worked remained in the vicinity of 100 hours a week. There was a well defined hierarchy. The physician in chief reigned over the attending physicians who reigned over the resident staff. The resident staff was led by a chief resident in each major field of practice. The chief resident reigned over the Senior Assistant Residents who reigned over the Assistant Residents who in turn commanded the Interns. Medical rounds on the pubic wards were conducted by any one of the attending physicians assigned to that task in return for the privilege of admitting private patients. The greatest delight was making a difficult diagnosis correctly.

In the autumn of 1960 I was assigned as part of my training as Senior Assistant Resident at St. Mary's Hospital on Lacombe Avenue in Montreal. It was a 315 Bed community hospital with affiliation to McGill University. The physician in chief was Dr. John Howlett. He was always upbeat, radiating hope to his patients. He was married to Geraldine Pare, whose brother was a senior radiologist at the Royal Victoria Hospital. His son Peter Howlett was an outstanding athlete, and later a business and community leader. The hospital was still staffed by nuns, and the nuns provided excellence in the care of patients. As it was a relatively small hospital, there was a tremendous spirit of cooperation. A virus laboratory, recently installed, allowed us to identify virus illnesses early in minor outbreaks that affected the populus from time to time. The hospital was near the shrine, Saint Joseph's Oratory.

In the spring of 1961, I was assigned as Senior Assistant Resident at the Royal Edward Laurentian Hospital; a hospital specialized in chest diseases. The medical director was Dr. Hugh E. Burke. He was highly skilled in the treatment of resistant tuberculosis. I already knew him from Metis Beach, where he spent the summer, being a direct descendant of Mr. McNider, the seigneur and founder of Metis Beach in 1820. At this hospital, there were 4 visiting resident physicians from Turkey. I remember the name of one of them. He was Dr. Chandar from Anatolia. Another of the Turkish doctors was a surgeon. Faced with doing an emergency tracheotomy at the bedside, he performed it peerlessly. We all used to play bridge at lunchtime, eat sandwiches, and one of the four would recite Turkish poetry. Ever after, I spoke just enough Turkish for greetings and salutations.

During the summer of June 1961, I served as Acting Chief Resident in Medicine,

Clefs de l'histoire:

Jusqu'aux années 1880, une relative liberté règne dans certains hôpitaux. Les patients ont la possibilité de s'alimenter en dehors des heures de repas et les alcools utilisés comme stimulants ne sont pas toujours rationnés. Même les soignantes abusent parfois du vin. À l'Hôpital général de Montréal, une infirmière est renvoyée pour cause d'ivresse.

Les visites sont peu réglementées et les prières se font à voix haute dans les salles et les corridors. Dans les hôpitaux tenus par des Hospitalières, les règles sont rigoureuses, ce qui n'empêche pas certains écarts.

À la fin du 19e siècle, la médicalisation des soins rend plus sévère l'encadrement des patients. Désormais, l'alcool est rationné, des régimes sont imposés, les collations, supprimées, et les visites, limitées. On décide aussi que le thé remplacera la bière pour les surveillantes de nuit. Le silence, la politesse et le respect des traitements deviennent des obligations strictes, sous peine de renvoi.

Quoi:

Cette photographie illustre bien les conditions d'hospitalisation des patients dans les salles communes. Les lits de fer sont disposés par paire entre de grandes fenêtres qui assurent un bon éclairage.

Où:

On remarquera au milieu de la salle de l'hôpital Royal Victoria la présence des traditionnelles berceuses près des calorifères à eau chaude.

Quand:

Peu après son inauguration, l'hôpital Royal Victoria prend le virage de la spécialisation. Dès 1904, un service de neurologie est annexé au service de médecine. L'année suivante, s'ajoutent les services de dermatologie et de pédiatrie.

Qui:

À l'hôpital Royal Victoria, le bureau médical joue un rôle important dans la gestion des soins aux patients. Composé essentiellement de médecins, c'est lui qui décide de l'achat des équipements et de l'embauche du personnel médical.

05435
Photograph
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C.
1961
05435

Commentaires:

My daughter Jennifer Jane was born in July, 1961. On August 17, 1961, we moved to Durham, North Carolina, and I was appointed as a postgraduate fellow in medicine and biochemistry at Duke University. Migration to the United States was an essential part of postgraduate education of Canadian physicians prior to taking fellowship exams and opening practice as a specialist. We lived at 93 Lambeth Circle in a duplex with a monthly rental of $95. Next door lived Dr. Brach Hattler and his wife, and young children. The transition from Montreal to the warm and sunny climate of Durham, North Carolina was heartwarming. I was initially destined to work in the laboratory of an endocrinologist, Dr. Frank Engel. However, I soon discovered that there was a position open in the newly established Research Training Program funded by the National Institutes of Health. The program was under the direction of Dr. James Wyngaarden, a gifted physician and scientist who later became the Director of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Within a few months, I met Dr. Charles Tanford, one of the foremost macromolecular physical chemists in America. Dr. Tanford put me in charge of the analytic ultracentrifuge, a $70,000 machine with a titanium rotor, speeds up to 70,000 RPM, steel cells with sapphire windows, and a mercury arc light, all of which permitted the determination of the molecular weight of biological macromolecules such as gamma globulin, the enzymes fumarase and glutamic dehydrogenize, the blood clotting protein fibrinogen, and the major constituent of human cartilage, chondroitin sulfate B. Experiments would last as long as 6 weeks. Photographs were taken at regular intervals displaying interference fringes. The plates were then placed in a tool and die maker's microscope and measured to the nearest fraction of a millimeter. Complex equations were then used along with a calculator to determine the molecular weights of proteins, their polypeptide chains, and protein polysaccharide complexes.

Gamma globulin samples were supplied by Dr. Rodney Porter of Mill Hill in the United Kingdom. Dr. Porter was later awarded the Nobel Prize for determining the molecular structure of gamma globulin. Thanks to Dr. Michael Sela, later W. Garfield Weston Professor of Immunology at the Weizman Institute, Rehovoth, Israel, I was able to adapt his equations so as to define and measure an apparent partial specific volume for gamma globulin in solutions of 6 molar guanidine hydrochloride (a solution that unfolds proteins) with or without mercaptoethanol, a chemical that cleaves di-sulfide linkages in proteins with more than one .polypeptide chain. The result was a series of papers published in the scientific literature.

In September 1963, my son Eric de Montmollin Marler was born at Duke University Medical Center. As living space was at a premium, we soon purchased a house at 2006 Dartmouth Drive in Durham. It seemed luxurious. The house measured about 1800 square feet and the lot was around half an acre in size.

I was appointed as Associate in Medicine and Biochemistry and settled into seeing diabetic patients at Duke University Medical Center's outpatient clinic. I was able to teach and propagate techniques of insulin dosage aimed at so called 'tight' control of blood sugar, believing as later proven, that tight control would help forestall complications of insulin-dependent diabetes such as retinopathy, nephrotic syndrome and peripheral neuropathy.

I executed a study aimed at measuring diabetic control in cooperation with Dr. Charles Styron, an immensely capable physician in private practice in Raleigh, North Carolina. I also had the privilege of meeting and working with Dr. Rubin Bressler, later prominent at the University of Arizona in Tucson. Together we published a couple of scientific papers in the field of diabetes while I authored a chapter on insulin dependent diabetes for Eli Lilly's authoritative book, published in 1965 and distributed U.S. wide to physicians.

In June 1965, I joined the IBM Corporation, drawn by the worldwide potential of information technology for public health and national development.


05445
Photograph
Hon. George C. Marler, and Family, 70th Birthday
1971
05445

Commentaires:

Mrs. Eric Marler nee Carole Lindsay, Donald Vince, Hon. George C. Marler, Harriet June Vince nee Marler, Eric Marler M.D., Claire Marler (1948 - ).


05129
Photograph
Eric Marler, M.D.
1996
05129

Commentaires:

Eric Marler, born in Monteal in 1932, was educated at McGill University (1949-1961)(M.A., M.D., C.M., Dip. Med., F.A.C.P.). He worked for the IBM Corporation from 1965 to 1993.

In 1993, he retired from IBM and became a consultant serving international corporations active in Europe, Asia, the Americas and Africa.

He has authored and co-authored articles, theses, book chapters and/or web sites in the history of science, internal medicine, physical biochemistry, public health, botany, disaster preparedness, and a variety of industry and corporate sectors.

He served as Trustee (1988-1993) and later Chairman of the Child Health Foundation (1999-2002) and as a member of the Advisory Board of the Japan Heritage Foundation. He is a Member of the Board of Directors of the Metis Beach Community Association and served as a Member of the Board of Directors of Volunteers in Technical Assistance (1990-1999). He also served as Trustee of the International Center for Research on Women (1980-90). He was Co-Chairman of the Disaster Communications Preparedness Sub-Committee and Member of the International Disaster Advisory Council of the U.S. Department of State, Agency for International Development, chaired by Mrs. Marilyn Quayle (1990-92).

Dr. Marler works in English (native), French, Spanish, German, Italian, Portuguese, and other languages, and was active as a licensed radio amateur - VE2KW - (1946-1959).

He currently serves as a member of the WHO Collaborative Center and is a developer of the Library of Alexandria Scientific Supercourse and of the Supercourse in Public Health and Epidemiology.

He is married to Carole Marler and his children are Jennifer Marler M.D., Eric de M. Marler M.D., and Charlotte Marler. He lives in New York and spends his summers in Metis Beach, Quebec.

Sources:

Eric Marler M.D.

http://www.delicious.com/EricMarlerMD



http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/Science/main.htm#WHO


05481
Photograph
Prince Albert Memorial, Kensington Gardens, London, England
05481

Commentaires:

In 1970, I was appointed a visiting Professor at the University of Newcastle and as a result, had opportunity to listen to and learn from Professor George Smart (1913-2003), later Sir George Smart, Professor of Medicine and Dean of the Postgraduate Medical Federation. I also became a visiting fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine at the invitation of the then Secretary Richard T. Hewitt. He took me through the premises at no. 1 Wimpole Street. He told me that under a 999 year lease, the annual rental of the building, the size of an entire city block, was 500 pounds sterling. I also met with The Right Hon. the Lord Rosenheim of the London Borough of Camden, K.B.E., M.D. Cantab., F.R.S., President of the Royal College of Physicians. These physicians were interested in discovering and deciphering practical pathways for computers and networks in health care.

We were living in Knightsbridge, a short walk from the Prince Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens commissioned by Queen Victoria in memory of her husband. Carole and I drove to Fife and from Fife to Inverinate by Kyle of Lochalsh near Kintail, a few miles inland from the West coast of Scotland. There we visited Professor R. D. Maclennan who lived in the manse, attended by his housekeeper, a devout Christian speaking only Gaelic. After a hearty meal and conversation, we spent the night at a large and drafty wooden hotel nearby, overlooking the Loch. So chilly was the night air that we kept each other warm by cuddling under the eiderdown.

The next day was New Year's Day. We drove down the West coast to Balachuilish where we caught the morning ferry. After a night of festivities, the captain of the ferry was hard put to rendezvous with the quay at the other side of the crossing. From there, we continued southward to a hotel at Fort William and joined in the country dancing that took place that evening. The old 3.5S navy blue Jaguar performed like a charm as we returned via the M6 to London.

Rising interest in the use of computers and networks in health care drew me further afield in Western Europe. My first destination was Stockholm, Sweden. I stayed at the Grand Hotel and had dinner at the Opera Kellaren. The next day I was driven to Uppsala, where an Austrian visiting professor had developed extensive applications of computers in Swedish health care. Uppsala was where Svedberg and Pedersen wrote about the sedimentation of large molecules in the analytic ultracentrifuge in the late 1920s.

Another favorite destination was Geneva, Switzerland. Carole traveled with me by air. We stayed at the Hotel Beau Rivage, situated on the edge of Lake Geneva, a hotel filled with old world charm. Geneva was the chosen site of World Health Organization meetings and conferences. Already, the Intercontinental Hotel, the site of OPEC negotiations, had many Arabic speaking guests and was equipped with television comedies from Egypt, news from Saudi Arabia and Qatar. I was not able to locate my two elderly de Montmollin cousins who ran a bible school. From Geneva, Carole took the train to Paris and walked from the Gare du Nord where the train arrived to the Gare Central where the train departed for London.

We greatly enjoyed London life. London restaurants were affordable, and food was excellent. Our favorite was a North Italian Trattoria in South Kensington. The tables had pink tablecloths. The dining room was decorated with large green ferns. A favorite dinner consisted of calamari en su tinta (squid in their own ink) followed by ensalata di mare (seafood salad) with gelato (Italian ice cream) as a desert and espresso coffee. A weekend lunchtime haunt was the Polish Café in South Kensington with its 1930s ambiance and its coterie of Polish speakers. Other favorites were the Dorchester Hotel for afternoon tea and the Carleton Hotel for its dinner menu featuring prime rib of beef.

In September 1971, we returned to Bethesda, Maryland in the outskirts of Washington, D.C.


05484
Photograph
Cherry Trees, Tidal Basin, Washington, D.C.
05484

Commentaires:

We rented a house in Bethesda near the Naval Medical Center. We adopted a lovable standard white poodle named Elijah. And in January 1972, our daughter Charlotte was born at Georgetown University Hospital, delivered by an obstetrician who earlier looked after Ethel Kennedy. Bethesda is close to Kensington and Rockville, Maryland suburbs of the D.C. metropolis. We began to furnish the house, and made many trips to an oriental rug dealer who had worked for the British Ambassador to Turkey in Istanbul, Sir Hughe Knatcbull-Hugessen. The Ambassador's cousin had moved to Montreal in his youth and his son, James (Jimmy) Knatchbull-Hugessen, was with me at Selwyn House School. Later, he was appointed as a Justice of the Federal Court of Canada.

At this particular juncture, computers were widely installed at health insurance companies and government health institutions such as the National Institutes of Health. Much of the work of administering Medicare and Medicaid was performed by private health insurance companies under contract to Federal and State governments. Yet it would take at least another decade or two before networks of computers would enable the flow of information across the entire spectrum of health care.

In the spring of 1972, we moved to a small house in Kensington, Maryland. The house had a lovely azalea garden. A tall magnolia tree graded the front of the house. From there, we were able to visit places in Washington, We especially remember visiting President Woodrow Wilson's (1856-1924) House at 2340 S street, N.W. On President Wilson's desk, there was a postcard from Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert Grosvenor of the National Geographic written during their visit to China in 1908.

It is not widely remembered that American bankers and investors bought $90 million of $200 million of international bonds in support of the Japanese war effort culminating in the surprise attack on the Russian fleet in Port Arthur in late January 1904. The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) was launched when Sidney Reilly nee Georgi Rosenblum (1874-1925), the British master spy, posing as a shipping agent in Port Arthur, sold details of the location of mines in the harbor to Vice-Admiral Togo Heihachiro, commander of the Japanese fleet on instruction by His Majesty's Government.

Instrumental in this transaction was Jacob Schiff, vehemently opposed to Czarist Russia. After all, Cossack troops were instrumental in the pogroms in Kiev and Kishinev. In New York City, Jacob Schiff became the Director of the Kuhn-Loeb Bank and succeeded in issuing and selling Russo-Japanese War Bonds in cooperation with Dr. Jokichi Takamine (1854-1922).

Dr. Jokichi Takamine, a prominent Japanese physician and business man had not only isolated adrenaline in 1901 but also pioneered a major fertilizer company. In the early 1900s, he married Caroline Field Hitch, a New Orleans socialite. He lived in a mansion on Riverside Drive in New York City. After the World's Fair of 1905 at St. Louis, the Japanese Government dismantled and shipped to Dr. Takamine, the 12,000 square foot replica of an 1830 ceremonial palace (Shin-Sin-Den) from Kyoto. It was re-erected in 1905 on the Merriewold Estate, a New York development near Forestburg, New York. The palace was renamed 'Sho Fu Den" (maple and pine domain). Artisans were brought from Kyoto to execute designs of the wooden panels which decorate its interior. The sun room, attached to the coronation room, is trimmed just below the ceiling with a continuous beam. Since the palace was on display at the World's Fair in St. Louis in 1905, it is possible that the architect, Frank Lloyd Wright, may have absorbed this continuous beam from this source as an element of his own later designs.

Dr. Takamine along with the Mayor of Tokyo subsequently donated and delivered 3,200 cherry trees to the City of Washington, D.C. Following the testing in Maryland of Japanese cherry trees (sakura) by Dr. David Fairchild of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1908 and a letter from Mrs. Eliza Ruhama Scidmore to Mrs. Helen Herron Taft asking the first lady to appeal for contributions, Dr. Takamine responded in concert with the mayor of Tokyo and made the donation in July 1912. Many years later, in 1989, I was happy to serve as an advisor to the Japanese Heritage Foundation in its efforts to conserve the property near Forestburg, New York. Through this connection, I met his grandson, Dr. Takamine, a physician, who practices as a Specialist in Addition Medicine in Santa Monica, California.

Our visit to President Woodrow Wilson's house on S Street served to reinforce our perception of significant interchange between leaders in the Far East and leaders in America during the first decade of the 1900s. While Japan developed its sphere of influence in Manchuria and Korea following the Russo-Japanese war (1904-1905), President Theodore Roosevelt extended American influence to the Philippines following the Spanish-American War (1898), the Treaty of Paris (1898) and Philippine American War (1898-1913).

In June 1973, while working in Bethesda, a message came to the effect that the IBM Corporation's Chief Scientist was planning to fly down to Washington from Armonk, New York to see me. I immediately flew to New York in deference to his rank. The Chief Scientist was tall, highly intelligent and very kind. He told me that Dr. Phillip Handler (1917-1981), formerly Chairman of the Department of Biochemistry at Duke University, had urged him to add me to his staff. I immediately became his Technical Advisor and found myself in an almost magical world.


05479
Map
Westchester County, NY
05479

Commentaires:

In 1973, we moved to Westchester county. NY. Carole found an idyllic farm house on an acre plus of old farmland with a more than 100 year old house. It was a Victorian Mansard with lots of white gingerbread, painted in Federal blue. It was framed in cedar sideboard, with its original windows. The fields around it were filled with flowering trees. We soon added Chinese chestnut trees, English walnut trees, beech, peach, plum, apple, cherry, complementing Norway spruce trees, a yew tree, a European alder tree, hickory, as well as tall and graceful maples. The property had 3 wells, of which the main well was artesian, 22 feet deep, capping an aquifer that was an additional 68 feet in depth. The water had a wonderful taste. Two other wells were 16 foot deep dug wells lined with bricks, dating from the origins of the property in 1895.

Soon we added 3 dairy goats, 3 sheep, 20 rabbits, 6 hens, 2 roosters, and a piglet. The sheep consisted of a Dorset ewe that gave twins, twice a year, a Columbia-Karakul black ram, and a daughter of the ewe, not yet ready for bearing. When the ewe gave birth, she would abandon one of her offspring, so that we would have to bottle feed it and raise the abandoned lamb ourselves.

There were spacious outbuildings. The livestock lived happily together in the largest outbuilding. The base of this building was 20 by 30 feet, with a wooden door and wire mesh windows letting in the daylight. Because the ram was black, it required regular shearing as well as extra doses of cod liver oil to avoid rickets. They all benefited from injections of selenium, the soil and pasture grass being selenium deficient. I would provide hay by cutting the grass with a sickle or buying high quality alfalfa hay across the Hudson River at Campbell's Hall.

One day, the sheep shearer came by from shearing the nearby Rockefeller sheep. An older man, he was accompanied by his wife. We sat at an outdoor table where we served tea and biscuits. She reminded me of Minnie Pearl in her blue straw hat. We watched in amazement as he sheared the black ram and the white Dorset ewe. In a matter of minutes, they were parted from their fleeces. For a moment, the ram did not recognize the ewe.

The rabbits came from the auction house at Wallkill and were raised from infancy by a tenant of the Borden Dairy Farm, a 450 acre property with airplane hangar sized barns that had once served as the core of the Borden Dairy Farms.

The hens were purchased from a roadside farm near Millbrook, New York. When each new hen was added, there was a long process of adjustment. The new hen would be last in line for feed, until it began to exercise its natural dominance in the social order. When a bantam rooster was added, the White Leghorn rooster cowered in deference and spent the next month with its head buried in shame in the rear of the barn. Eventually it keeled over and died due to the loss of its rank. The hens produced an egg a day for several months. If I failed to lead them back from the field to the barn, they would spend the night in the upper reaches of a Norway spruce tree near the house.

On one occasion, a marauding pair of dogs, a malamute and a German shepherd, invaded the premises, and did away with 16 rabbits, laying them out in a clockwork pattern, their necks severed by a single bite. However, rabbits bred back to 20 and remained in that number for several years.

A farmer at Campbell's Hall, New York, sold us 100 pound bags of corn at $7 a bag. One day, we met one of his sons who had last an arm in a threshing machine. With extraordinary strength and courage, he held a 100 pound bag of corn and tied it with one arm. We have never forgotten him.

The Saturday auction at Walkill was like an event from the 1880s. Live geese were auctioned around 5:00 PM at an average price of $5 for a live goose. One day a pig escaped, and 20 grown men spent an hour chasing this pig through the neighboring countryside.

In mid-summer, we had berries: strawberries, raspberries, wine berries, blueberries and fruits: wild grapes, peaches, pears, and apples. From the berries we made jams and jellies and from the fruits, using Shaker recipes; we made apple cider, and pear cider. There were occasional explosions of bottles in the basement. By and large, we enjoyed some of the most ethereal tastes. From the elderberries we made elderberry rob (a sweet syrup).

I milked the dairy goats. One of the goats, a Toggenberg, had huge teats and yielded 6 quarts of milk a day over a period of an entire year. She had some constraint in her udders. My milking hand grew so that the thenar muscle was enormous. The milk kept coming in abundance, I soon learned to make goat cheese, and from the curd came great batches of Camembert cheese, and from the whey, a delicious sweet whey cheese.

The male goats were taken North about 90 miles to Pine Plains, where the slaughter house accepted them and a week later returned goat meat, wrapped in small parcels for our daily consumption. Under New York State laws, the lights and the viscera were retained by the slaughter house. The chops and other such cuts were returned and provided many a delicious meal. The sheep skins were shipped to Quakerstown, Pennsylvania, and for a fee of $13 per skin, tanned and returned. A dozen skins were piled up on the living room floor.

The animal manures were collected and recycled as fertilizers. We raised our own vegetables and potatoes. After a trip to a United Nations meeting in the Philippines, I had the honor and pleasure of meeting a Vice Chancellor from the University of Swaziland. We shared recipes for cooking pumpkins. I had sewn pumpkin seeds that spring. Upon returning in the early autumn, many pumpkins had grown. Once harvested, they were stacked at the back door as a sign of welcome.

The property was regularly visited by a herd of deer, does, fawns with spots, and stags with single, double or branched horns. The deer ate almost every plant in site. Tulips could not survive their onslaught. Roses were constantly pruned and deprived of their blooms. Day lilies were a favorite canapé for deer. They even ate bird seed from the bird feeder. Sometimes we would sit on the park benches gazing up at the tall maples trees and dream that we were back in Hyde Park. London, England. One day we visited the Bronx Zoo. My favorite was the Bactrian camel. After a short ride on the camel, the Zoo gave me a camel driver's license which I prized for many years.

Once we were visited by someone's pet crow. It sat on my shoulder, waited to be fed chopped lamb, nipped my ears, and enjoyed watching me shovel the heavy winter snow. I went to the local naturalist who recognized it as a pet crow belonging to Linda, who lived 3 miles away as the crow flies. It returned nearly every day, and on Sundays, it would tap on the bedroom window at 7AM and then walk along the parapet and gaze at the parrots. It would wait for met to come to play and greatly enjoyed the lamb. Linda called to say that it was a New York crow named Damien with a penchant for chopped liver. After 5 weeks, the crow was captured and killed by a passing falcon. I had already added a stone statue of St. Francis.

In spring, fields of golden daffodils sprung into bloom, and long stands of forsythia shone in bright yellow. At other times, the garden was in a blue phase with Siberian iris, hyacinth, prunus vulgaris, violets and vinca predominating. The lilac hedges created powerful sweet scent. The apple trees were filled with white blossoms. The white spirea would lend a striking accent. The European alder would fill the yard with its strange sweet musty smell. Given meat and vegetables, fruits and flowers, we felt a step closer to the fantasy of self sufficiency. Wild geraniums prospered, and the grounds were soon covered with these scented plants and their violet blooms.

We acquired a black American cocker spaniel named Nike. Nike liked to run with the deer, and on more than one occasion, Nike would return after being kicked by one of the 5 deer who visited the garden. The deer were botanically expert, knowing the exact time when each tree yielded its fruit. Nike preferred the outdoors life. One day, she strayed onto the main road and was run over.

We had a Franklin stove installed in the smaller living room on the ground floor. We protected the wall behind with grey flagstone also used to create the hearth. A double walled steel outdoor chimney was installed and approved by the building inspector. We picked up 120 car loads of 25 inch wooden logs from the Rockefeller property where trees had been felled in the process of deeding the land to New York State as a park. The wood was oak and maple. We obtained a permit to harvest black locust and willow felled during the extension of an electric line to the camp site at Croton Point. We stacked the logs so as to create a fence for the sheep. Bit by bit, over a ten year period, we burned wood as a principal source of heat for the house. During a normal winter, the oil furnace was required whenever the outdoor temperature fell below 10o F. Otherwise, the water pipes would have frozen and burst. The living room held a temperature of 75o F. during the day whereas the bedrooms during the night would fall to a chilly 48o F.. The black locust burned with intense heat and had to be tempered with willow for fire safety. The black locust was so tough to saw with a chain saw that we preferred to split the logs into faggots, and feed a few faggots as required to sustain a hot stove. The hot stove was ideal for reducing maple sap to maple syrup, of which we made an ample supply. The chimney had to be swept regularly. We opted no to use the traditional technique of dropping a hen down the chimney so that its flapping wings would remove the soot. Instead we acquired a 15 inch round wire brush and moved it up and down the flue on the end of flexible plastic pipes.

In July 1983, we received an invitation to attend the wedding of a Hollywood star to a former Miss America. We were thrilled to travel to Hollywood for the occasion and stayed at the Beverly Hills Hilton. Carole took the train from New York and enjoyed playing cards with 3 young swains who left the train at some point for San Diego. I flew to Los Angeles, and we met at the hotel. We were invited to an intimate dinner at a Chinese restaurant on Thursday evening. Her father, a friend and colleague from my workplace, was at the dinner. The bridegroom revealed his mastery of magic. He made the wedding ring disappear for a while. He was also a collector of classical cars and antique furniture. The wedding took place on the lot at Warner Brothers on Saturday afternoon. During the reception, Carole met a TV talk show host, and I met several Miss Americas. My daughter Charlotte then about 11 years old, made friends with a producer's daughter and had a lovely time.

My father passed away at the age of 79 years and 6 months in April 1981. I had visited him on April 22, the day of his demise. He looked forward to concluding his manuscript on the life of the Reverend David Francois de Montmollin (1721-1803). The funeral was held at St. George's Anglican Church in Montreal. About 600 persons signed the registry. Then he was laid to rest under a huge family stone on a hill at the Mount Royal Cemetery near his mother Harriet Amelia.Marler nee Jamieson (1864-1954) and his father William de Montmollin Marler (1849-1929).

That summer, we went to Metis and spent lots of time with my mother. She grieved with stoic courage. They had been very close all their married lives. Carole and I decided to explore the woods at the back of the Metis property. I had known these woods since my youth. The woods largely consisted of 2 acres of old spruce trees. The floor of the woods was densely shaded and covered with a thick layer of pine needles. Scattered through the woods were more than 100 Turk's Cap Lilies (Lilium Martagon), white or violet in color. Later I wrote:

Spots of holy light,
In woods of spruce and pine,
Forget-me-not and columbine,
Lilium martagon,
Another summer,
Come and gone.


05486
Map
The Philippines
05486

Commentaires:

In 1979, I visited the International Rice Research Institute on the campus of the University of the Philippines at Los Banos. Since rice is the staple grain of Asia, rice production had to expand to keep pace with a growing population. This required breeding rice varieties resistant to disease, responsive to fertilizers, adapted to growing conditions, while conserving primitive genetic cultivars for future use. Computers were used to process results of experimental crosses so as to accelerate the cycle of breeding, testing and releasing elite varieties.

Brown planthopper (Bph 1, 2, 3) a.k.a. Nilaparvata lugens Stål is a serious insect pest of rice (Oryza sativa). I witnessed an experiment in which a tent full of brown planthoppers (Bph 1, 2, 3) enveloped a test plot of rice seedlings from each of 40,000 different genetic varieties. One and only one rice seedling survived. Its Bph 1, 2, 3 resistant genes were then incorporated into IR-60 and IR-62, released in 1980-1984, with resistance to rice blast, bacterial leaf blight (BLB), Tungro virus, Bph 1,2,3, and green leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler (GLH).

In 1983 I returned to IRRI and met Prof. M.S. Swaminathan who served as Director-General of IRRI (1982-1985). M.S. Swaminathan, the architect of India's "Green Revolution", led the introduction of high-yielding wheat and rice varieties to Indian farmers.

In Washington in 1987 he received the 1st World Food Prize. In 2006, two decades later, personal computers communicating with servers are helping implement his vision of conveying insights derived from agricultural research to the farmer in the field and vice versa.

Sources:

A treatise on rice can be found at

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice


05475
Map
Thailand
05475

Commentaires:

When I visited the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, Thailand in the 1980s, I was invited to have lunch with Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn. The Princess had been studying remote sensing as a graduate student at AIT in an effort to strengthen geographic data bases pertaining to H.R.H. His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej's village projects throughout Thailand. I was thrilled to give Her Royal Highness the Princess a copy of the Child Health Strategy published by Dr. Ibrahim of the Institute of Child Health in London, a national of Tanzania. The book lay on a purple velvet cushion resting on a silver salver.

After lunch, in the auditorium, the students of AIT gave an impromptu ballet. The Bangladeshi students showed how their Prince had stepped on water lily pads, and how the lily pads were cut out in the shape of his feet to make shoes. The Princess responded with a lullaby written by His Majesty the King, followed by another song, written by her father for her 16th birthday. Students from 22 Asian countries gathered to applaud the Princess. The warmth of the reception was electric

The Chairman of the Board of AIT and founder was James A. Linen, former Chairman of Time Life. His relative, Francis Bowes Sayre (1885-1972), had been selected by the King of Thailand in 1923 to serve as Foreign Advisor to the Government of Siam. As a result of his work, Siam concluded treaties with European countries in 1926 along the lines of the 1920 Siam-U.S. Treaty and Protocol. Sayre, a Professor of Law at Harvard University, had been recommended to the King by the Dean of the Law School at Harvard University. He was married to Jessie Wilson (1887-1933) one of President Woodrow Wilson's daughters. Mr. and Mrs. Sayre traveled to Bangkok, where Mrs. Sayre soon suffered from enteric disease and was forced to return to Washington. In 1926, her husband was appointed U.S. Ambassador to Siam. The King conferred on Francis B. Sayre the title of 'Chao Phraya' (Beloved Friend). I had the pleasure of meeting Jim Linen in New York after visits to AIT during the 1980s

Sources:

A biography and picture of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn can be found at

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maha_Chakri_Sirindhorn


05488
Photograph
Japan
05488

Commentaires:

From 1975 through 1990, I visited Tokyo yearly and stayed at the old Hilton Hotel which later became the Capitol Tokyu Hotel. Jet lag was severe. I used to arrive around 4pm Tokyo time from New York and proceed by taxi to the Hotel. The Capitol Tokyu Hotel is located in Akasaka, in central Tokyo. The Hotel is situated in a corner of a lush green area beside the historic Sanno Hie Jinja (shrine). Immediately, I would repair to the Star Hill Chinese Restaurant and have a Chinese dinner consisting of deep fried garlic shrimps, boiled white rice and Szechwan vegetables. This was accompanied by hot Xaoshing rice wine with a pickled plum and rock sugar crystals. Then I would go to my room and fall asleep, waking up at 11pm to watch the Blue Show. On my first trip, I won a pocket calculator which I picked up downtown at the Mitskuoshi Department Store.

Japanese breakfast was my favorite, served in the Garden View restaurant. Waitresses with finely patterned kimonos floated about, and one could spend a full hour gazing at the koi (carp) leaping in the water garden outside the window. Japanese breakfast consisted of glutinous white rice with a side dish of tsukemono pickles, a bowl of miso shiro (miso soup), grilled fish (okazu), egg and vegetable dishes and ocha (green tea).

Japanese colleagues would come to pick me up at 9am, and we would drive to a downtown office building in Central Tokyo. We would work from dawn to dusk, reviewing projects and ideas, punctuated periodically by green tea or sushi box lunches. Then we would repair to a Japanese restaurant for sake, sashimi and stories.

One Sunday, I visited the Canadian Embassy on the Aoyama-dori. The taxi driver turned into the open compound. There the Ambassador's wife was standing reading the incoming mail. She asked me my name, and then she said, "Please come in. The house is named after your uncle." I entered and found an enormous residence, filled with Chippendale furniture and chintz sofas, overlooking a Japanese garden of several acres crowned by a gazebo from the 1920s.

The Canadian embassy stood across the street from the Aoyama detached palace once occupied by Prince Chichibu (Yasuhito) (1902-1953). In the embassy, the room for playing cards was wood paneled, and in the 1930s, Princess Chichibu would come over in the afternoon to play bridge. Princess Chichibu (1909-1995) nee Matsudaira Setsuko was the daughter of a former Japanese Ambassador to the United States and later to the United Kingdom. Up until the early 1930s, when the Japanese military seized power, there had been close and amicable relations between Great Britain and Japan.

Next door, Prime Minister Takahashi Koreikyo had lived. He had served Japan as a young Privy Councilor in London at the turn of the century and spoke English well. It was Takahashi Koreikyo along with Jacob Schiff who influenced the Rothschild and Warburg banks to join in funding the Russo Japanese War Bonds issue in 1904. I was therefore happy to meet and have dinner with the grandson of Takahashi Koreikyo , a contemporary of fine demeanour and classical features with whom I shared many interests in common.

During the 1980s, I visited Prof. Sawaragi at Osaka University where he played an important role in planning the offshore Osaka airport project. He took me to Buddhist temples and gardens in Kyoto. On one occasion, he hosted us at a country restaurant where unusual sea creatures were served. Prof. Sawaragi revealed that he was descended from a samurai family famous for beautiful pottery.

At a formal U.S.-Japanese dinner of leading scientists, I sat beside the Tokyo University professor of origami and watched as he folded paper into a magical shape.

In the Japanese 4th national plan (sanzenso), it was stated that many citizens walk about their cities on concrete pavements, dreaming of their origins in villages, with mountains and watersheds nurturing green valleys sewn with rice paddies.


05491
Map
Costa Rica
05491

Commentaires:

In yearly visits, 1975-1990, I stayed at the Camino Real Hotel in Mariano Escobedo, a central district of Mexico City. In the lobby, stood sculpture by Francisco Chavaria Zuniga (1912-1998), the Costa Rican born Mexican sculptor and lithographer. Zuniga created sculptures of massive Mayan women.

I met regularly with young Mexican scientists at a center near UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico) in San Angel del Pedregal. Landsat satellite images were combined with ground truth in an effort to improve precision in predicting the wheat crop in irrigated fields of Sonora and Sinaloa in North Western Mexico. Prediction of the size of the crop was integral to planning wheat transportation and storage requirements.

In 1988, I called on Dr. E. J. (Ed) Wellhausen, the 1st Director of CIMMYT (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz y Trigo). He had written extensively on the hybridization of maize in Mexican agriculture. A pivotal article was entitled "The indigenous maize germplasm complexes of Mexico: Twenty-five years of experience and accomplishments in their identification, evaluation and utilization" in: Recent Advances in The Conservation and Utilization of Genetic Resources: Proceedings of the Global Maize Germplasm Workshop, CIMMYT, Mexico, D. F. pp. 17-28.

Dr. and Mrs. Wellhausen lived behind the Lutheran Church at Las Lomas in the borough (delegación} of Miguel Hidalgo, an exclusive neighborhood in Mexico City, Mrs. Wellhausen greeted me with warmth, and in a flash, we were exchanging names of Hungarian and Transylvanian friends, including my 7th cousin by marriage Mme. Henri de Montmollin (Marie Louise or Marielle) of New York City, later Mrs. Robert M. McKinney of Middleburg, Virginia (deceased Jan 12, 1998). We sipped coffee from coffee cups served on a solid silver tray.

Ed Wellhausen emerged from a long distance telephone call with the Rockefeller Foundation, instrumental in work aimed at helping Mexican efforts to expand production of maize, a staple grain consumed as food or fodder. He recalled agricultural scientists such as Dr. Norman Borlaug, with whom he had worked in the effort to save India from starvation in 1970. Borlaug, Wellhausen and others, working with M.S. Swaminathan of the Indian Planning Council had successfully introduced elite Mexican wheat varieties to the Punjab, responsible for major increases in Indian wheat production.

He stressed the importance of small farmers in Mexico, Central America and the Andean countries in the conservation of primitive genetic varieties of maize, vital to the future of maize breeding programs. He described an institution named CATIE (Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza) located at Turrialba in Costa Rica. Established in the 1940's, CATIE's 27,500 acre facility includes greenhouses, orchards, forest plantings, experimental agricultural projects, a dairy farm, a herbarium, seed conservation chambers and housing for students and teachers.

I went on to visit CATIE, just outside the Atlantic slope community of Turrialba. The 2 hour drive east through Cartago from San Jose ending in mountain roads was breathtaking, particularly because it was pouring rain, and the windshield wiper on the old jeep wagon had failed due to a loose screw. Indigenous varieties of Zea mays (maize) reminded me of the ethnographic complexity of Guatemala. In Guatemala there are some 44 different Mayan languages, bearing little resemblance to one another and no resemblance to Spanish. Transgenic maize of U.S. origin was like the Spanish language, having little relevance to improving primitive indigenous varieties of maize, adapted to local conditions, altitude, rainfall, soil, temperature, fertilizers, pests, diseases and intercropping.

Computers were just beginning to help CATIE operate as a center for the conservation of plant genetic diversity for small farmers in Latin America.

I returned to Costa Rica again in 1991.and lectured about university networking and the Internet to a group of Latin American university rectors meeting in San Jose I stayed with a colleague who owned a coffee plantation, and walked the hills of his farm. On the weekend, we went into the countryside to a small town with furniture manufacture. At the local pub, I ran into Guy F. de Téramond, who in 2002 was appointed as the Minister of Science and Technology of Costa Rica. Don Guy played an important role in extending Internet connectivity to villages in Costa Rica.

The following year, I went to EARTH (Escuela Agricola de la Region de las Tropicas Humidas), located in Guácimo, Limón, Costa Rica, a private, international, non-profit university dedicated to education in agricultural sciences and natural resource management. EARTH contributes to sustainable development in the tropics by seeking a balance between agricultural production and environmental preservation. I brought a PC and demonstrated access to plant data bases at CATIE in Turrialba and elsewhere in New Zealand. The Vice President of administration was of Lebanese extraction, no less than the son of the translator of Kahlil Gibran's 'The Prophet'.


05495
Map
Brazil
05495

Commentaires:

In 1988 I met Sir Ghillean Prance (1937 - ), M.A., D. Phil, D. Sc., F.R.S., F.I.Biol., F.R.G.S., 11th Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (1988-1999). We met at the New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) where he had served for 25 years becoming Senior Vice-President for Research. The occasion was the inauguration of a book by John Jungjohann, an American mercenary rubber cutter, entitled "White Gold: The Diary of a Rubber Cutter in the Amazon, 1906-1916." The diaries were edited by Ghillean Prance of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, England, one of the foremost botanical gardens in the world. Inauguration of the book attracted John Jungjohann, grandson of the rubber cutter, a maker of mosquito nets, living in South Florida. I stood in the shadows of great green ferns at NYBG, witnessing their passion for plants.

Dr. Prance had made a number of visits to Brazil in his role as Director of Amazonian research at the NYBG. In 1971, with his wife Lady Ann and their children, they spent severa years in Manaus, Amazonas. From Manaus, he ventured into the jungle with native Indians whose knowledge of flora, fungi and fauna was legendary. He was already shaping the discipline of economic botany while refining his grasp of ecologically intricate, economically important crops such as the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excesia).

When I acquired a winter house in Naples, Florida in 1993, I found myself in the very semi-arid tropics that fascinated Dr. Prance. Thanks to the Internet, we corresponded frequently. I had been close to another project leading to the creation of high resolution images of incunabuli at the Vatican Library (Biblioteca apostolica Vaticana). From this base of experience, I was convinced that Internet interchange of digital photographs of herbarium specimens and of wild plants in the semi-arid tropics of Brazil could enhance the efficiency of plant identification.

In 1994, I went to Geneva to a meeting of the World Health Organization and returned via London, detouring to the Royal Botanical Gardens. We had breakfast at the Director's House at Kew. I noticed a sharp edge along the path from the house to the gardens and asked him about it. Quietly he answered 'Optical fibre'. He had already taken steps to enter the new age of telecommunications.


05499
Map
Florida
05499

Commentaires:

In November 1993, my wife Carole decided to explore the Southern United States by car. She drove all the way to Naples, Florida and fell in love with a house and property overlooking a municipal lake near the shores of Naples, Florida. The house had been built just after World War II by Admiral Baker, founder of Buffalo Chain and Link Company in the early 1900s. Mrs. Baker had served as an army nurse during the war and had been inspired by the architecture of houses in Normandy, France. The house was called 'Normandy Cottage'. French doors opened front and back into the garden. At each corner of the house there was a room. The ceilings were high. Sunlight flooded the house.

The property occupied half an acre and was bordered by cajeput, punk or paper bark trees (Melaleucas), introduced to South Florida from Australia in the early 1900s. At one corner of the property stood a banyan tree about 60 feet in circumference, providing shade. When we climbed into the heart of the banyan, we felt as if we were protected by a herd of Thai elephants. Banyan trees have many aerial roots that tie the tree to the ground. Every December, a covey of crows would eat the fruit and spread the seeds into the crests of neighbouring Melaleucas. After decades, the aerial roots of the banyan tree grew through the hearts of the Melaleucas. In India, banyan trees have been known to occupy half an acre.

The garden cultivated by my wife attracted the attention of a famous painter, Ann Shreve, wife of Harvey Shreve, a retired auto dealer from Charleston, West Virginia, now living year round in Naples, Florida. She painted a large canvas revealing a lime green wooden bench near flowerbeds, overflowing with tropical plants. Ann Shreve has a legendary grasp of colour. In front of the house, the gravel driveway was surrounded by sweet smelling jasmine shrubs. On the right hand side, a small swimming pool was surrounded by hibiscus, creating an area so private that one could bathe unseen in the moonlight. Citrus trees of every variety filled the backyard, along with a giant mango tree, papaya trees, banana trees and avocado trees, Queen Palms flanked the patio.

The property was located at 642 3rd Street North, overlooking a municipal lake. During a hurricane in the 1960s, the lake seized up and flowed through the living room, leaving a deposit of mud over the terrazzo floor. We played tennis one day at the municipal courts and noticed that our opponent had a very strong forehand. He was in fact a State of Florida alligator agent. He had been called upon to remove an alligator from the municipal lake, as the alligator, a male, was in the habit of crossing the property in May to find its mate at a neighboring lake. As we settled into the house, we saw a silver fox sauntering by, and on another occasion, a family of armadillos. One day, a snapping turtle of immense proportions crossed the street from the lake to lay its eggs in our compost pile. A blue heron perched on a point of land, providing an unparalleled view of South Florida's wildlife.

The house felt like paradise. Nearby was the Naples Beach Hotel and Golf Club located at the foot of 7th Avenue since the early 1950s. There was a game of tennis every day at their tennis courts. And within a month or two, we found ourselves mingling with a score of interesting people from all over the United States, especially Kentucky, Ohio, and Michigan. A bicycle sufficed most of the time for getting around, even for going to the supermarket. There were excellent health care facilities within a mile. Health services were well adapted to the complex needs of the older generation.

Naples soon served as a launching pad for trips to Miami's Coral Gables and across Alligator Alley to Palm Beach. Our daughter Charlotte had found herself a full time job at the Ritz Hotel in Naples, the largest Ritz hotel in America. She learned every facet of the hotel industry over a 5 year period. Periodically, she would travel with Carole to a sister hotel such as the Ritz Hotel in Palm Beach. One day, Carole and I drove home to New York via North West Florida and Coastal South Carolina. I had e-mailed my 7th cousin, Richard de Montmollin in Columbia, South Carolina, and arranged to meet him with his wife Elizabeth and sister Virginia at a hotel in Palatka overlooking the St. John's River.

The Marler family and the American branch of the de Montmollin family had exchanged letters and interchanged names since the early 19th century. Harry Marler de Montmollin (1869-1933) had settled in Palatka at the turn of the 20th century, established a hardware store and operated a steamboat traveling between Jacksonville and Palatka. After the demise of the tourist industry in Palatka in the early 1900s due to a series of heavy frosts, one of the remaining mainstays of the economy of Palatka was the manufacture of traditional Victorian pencils. Palatka was a port that connected with Jacksonville via the St. Johns River. Palatka was also a major railhead for the railway connecting with Western Florida. Cedar wood came from Cedar Keys in West Florida railway to Palatka, where graphite cores were added to make pencils. As a young boy, my cousin Richard recalled receiving a bowl of shiny copper pennies as a Christmas present from Andrew W. Mellon (1855-1937), financier and industrialist, a winter resident of Palatka. After Richard's father's demise in 1933, the children and their mother resettled in Columbia, South Carolina where my son Eric de M. Marler M.D. practices medicine along with his wife Clarice Marler nee l'Esperance, an experienced nurse and mother of Ashley, Briana and Caitlyn.


05493
Photograph
President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921. Albert Einstein is standing to the left of the President.
National Archives and Records Administration
05493

Commentaires:

"To science, pilot of industry, conqueror of disease, multiplier of the harvest, explorer of the universe, revealer of nature's laws, eternal guide to truth.*

During the 1980s, most universities had mainframe computers and added a network of work stations for students, faculty and administration. During the 1990s, work stations became personal computers, mainframes became servers and networks were inter-networked worldwide through the Internet. During the 2000s, bandwidth expanded to megabits per second speeds thanks to cable-TV, optical fibre and wireless connectivity. The World Wide Web brought anytime, anywhere access to more than 100 billion web pages. Web search engines such as Google grew to encompass news, images, video, directories, books, articles, catalogues, products, laboratory tests, blogs, electronic mail, maps, local businesses, satellite images, and lectures.

We are now closer to realizing the aspirations of Tennyson's Ulysses:

And this gray spirit yearning in desire
To follow knowledge like a sinking star,
Beyond the utmost bound of human thought.

Sources:

*The inscription at the base of the dome of the Great Hall of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences at 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W., Washington, D.C.


Conclusion:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Marler, Hon. George C. - David Francois de Montmollin - 1963 - Manuscript

Marler, Hon. George C. - Founders of the Marler Family - 1979 - Manuscript

Marler, Howard - Marler - Four Generations of a Quebec Family - 1987 - Book

Aspinall nee Marler, Evelyn - The Marler Family - 2002 - Manuscript

De Montmollin, Richard - The de Montmollin Family - American Branches - 1995 - Book

Marler, Eric - Memoir - 2006 - Manucsript

The Franch language version of this folder (dossier) "La Famille Marler au Quebec par Eric Marler M.D. is at

http://www.mccord-museum.qc.ca/scripts/viewobject.php?Lang=2&tourID=Lindsay&display=


© Musée McCord Museum